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Chimpanzee Behavior & Viral Evolution

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Jonathon Karpman

on 15 February 2014

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Transcript of Chimpanzee Behavior & Viral Evolution

Why do you think Dr. Hahn is interested in the contents of fecal pellets? Generate possible list of "contents" in feces.
25% of the feces is solid matter, 30% of this solid matter is dead bacteria.

Nutrients from previous consumption of food will be present.
Possibly providing evidence of what they eat.
Their lifestyle.

Traces of viral DNA or RNA.
Can provide evolutionary evidence.

If the virus found in captive Western chimpanzees is the same virus found in wild Western chimpanzees, how would you be able to verify this? What types of techniques might be employed? What types of data would be desired?
If the captive and wild western chimpanzees have the same SIV virus inside them, you could figure it out by comparing the rna sequences of the virus in each species. Some techniques that could be used are sequence analysis and the desired data would be to find homologous sequences of RNA in the chimpanzees.
Choose 1 of the research questions and consider it in more detail. What would be a reasonable hypothesis?
Does their diet affect their behavior?

Diets and behavior won't always be consistent within different groups. One cause may be varying diets. For example, if a cow eats infected meat, it will develop mad cow disease which causes the brain to waste away.

If chimpanzees have different diets, then they will behave differently.
What might scientists gain from knowing the location of the origin of hiv?
How might SIV have "jumped" from a chimpanzee to a human?
There are many different theories regarding this topic:
hunter's theory
The OPV Theory
the conspiracy theory
Chimpanzee Behavior & Viral Evolution
How might the social structure of the chimpanzee community and the chimp social interactions influence what is contained in the fecal matter?
Social structure:Loose dominance hierarchy
Dominating male usually only gains the access to all women that are in estrus(time when females are fertile).
A sharing of food no matter the rank.
Shows that nutrients between all feces will relatively be the same.
The community is usually made up of closely related chimpanzees.
Composed of mothers, their offspring,and several closely related adult males.
Bacteria and viral traces will be similar in the members of the community
Chimpanzees socially interact to win favors, then have the ability to overthrow the dominating group in the community.
What is it about chimpanzee society that may have contributed to the spread of the siv virus?
In a chimpanzee society, the females move to different groups when they are fertile, so this could have contributed to the spread of SIV viruses among different societies.
What research questions might Dr.Hahn and her associates ask?
How do chimpanzees interact and communicate?
Does their diet affect their behavior?
Do different groups do things differently?
Based on the hypothesis, what types of data might the scientists collect and why? How would it allow Dr.Hahn to test the hypothesis?
Feces: They could study diet through what is being excreted. Identifying similar diets could help to pinpoint which chimpanzees may have similar behaviors.
Behavioral actions: They could identify the behaviors associated with specific chimpanzees so they have direct comparisons with diet and conduct.
What methodology might Dr. Hahn use to detect the SIV in the fecal droppings?
What value do you place in this type of research?
Zoonosis: any infectious disease that can be transmitted ( in some cases, a vector)
HIV analysis in humans
- Antibodies

SIV analysis in chimpanzees
-T-RELP amplified 16s
rDNA

-SIVsm antibodies
VERY VALUABLE!!!
Bibliography
http://kidshealth.org/kid/talk/qa/mad_cow_disease.html

http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/203293/feces
By knowing the origin of the virus called HIV, they might be able to find a cure, or a direct countermeasure to the virus if a person gets infected.
By: Anna Kim, Jaslyn Pe, David Jung, and Jonathon Karpman.
Group 6, Period 5
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