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Copy of Copy of Early Literacy & You
Transcript of Copy of Copy of Early Literacy & You
Strategies for Learning and Teaching
Early literacy is what children know about reading and writing before they can read and write.
What is “early literacy?”
Early literacy is not the teaching of reading. It is simply providing a strong basis so that when children are taught to read in school or begin formal reading instruction, they are ready or have the necessary skills and tools, to learn.
Reading Readiness and Early Literacy
Literacy Research from the 1960s through the 1990s
The Physical Environment in the Classroom
In addition to those mentioned here, there are many other things you can do to positively impact your child's early literacy skills.
Learn more by asking a TCPL staff member!
Preventing Reading Difficulties in Young Children, Learning to Read and Write: Developmentally Appropriate Practices (1998), and the National Reading Panel Report (2000): deal with early literacy instruction and how to improve it.
No Child Left Behind Act (2002): Put more emphasis on the subject areas of reading, math, and science.
By: Alyssa Powell
Theory and Research Based
Historical Influence on Early Literacy Instruction
- Early Literacy has been influenced by philosophers and theorists that have dealt with child development, early childhood education, and literacy development.
Examples of Philosophers:
Pestalozzi (1979) & Froebel (1974):
Talked about how children would unfold through sensory experiences involving touch, smell, taste, size, and shape. Social, emotional, physical, and intellectual development and play are all very important for children.
John Dewey (1966)
: Progressive education philosophy which had a strong influence on preschool and kindergarten practices from 1920s through the rest of the 20th century. This idea was focused on using content activity centers in the classroom for the different areas such as science/social studies displays, block area, music/art area, and library area. There was no attempt at formal lessons and there was no formal reading instruction.
She had a strong impact of early literacy development and instruction in the way that she created manipulative activities and activities where children used their senses to learn.
Piaget (1969) & Vygotsky (1981
):Learning theorists that focused on social learning and cognitive development. They believed adults should scaffold and mold behaviors they wanted children to learn.
Morphette and Washburn (1931):
They believed in postponing formal reading instruction until the child was developmentally "old enough". Their research concluded that children 6 years and 6months of age made better progress on a test of reading achievement than younger children.
Many educators were uncomfortable with waiting on children to become "old enough" for instruction and began to at least provide children with experiences to prepare them for formal reading instruction. They did this through focusing on auditory and visual discrimination, visual motor skills, and larger motor skills.
Brought to life new information on oral language development, early writing development, emergent reading behaviors, and family literacy.
Natural ways of developing reading began to be used versus using abstract reading activities.
There was still a strong hands-off attitude towards teaching early literacy, emergent literacy was better understood and encouraged.
Reading good literature to the child, encouraging scribble writing, and invented spelling was a way for them to experience a holistic form of writing.
At the end of 1990 the whole language philosophy was question and a new phase of early literacy was entered in which acquisition of skills has become important as well as accountability for the development for these skills.
Juel (1988) found based on his research that it is crucial to have good beginning when learning to read because it can and probably will affect the rest of one's life.
Current Influences on Early Literacy
Characteristics of exemplary teachers (not just specific to literacy):
- Used varied teaching strategies
- Have high expectations for student achievement
-Provide instruction to meet individual student needs
- Provides extensive positive feedback to students
-Treat children with respect
- Allow students to work in various group styles such as part/whole or individually
- Have excellent organization and management skills
- Include parents in their program
- And seeks professional development on their own
Characteristics That Apply Specifically to Literacy Instruction:
- Provide a literacy rich environment with accessible material
-Trying to carry out meaning-based literacy instruction to motivate interests
- Provide an organized and comprehensive program of skill development in phonemic awareness, phonics, vocabulary, comprehension, and fluency.
-Use quality children's literature along with different materials for teaching reading and writing
- Attend to individual literacy needs by forming small groups for some guided instruction of skills
- Literacy instruction takes place during long uninterrupted time periods and is integrated throughout the school day
Research Based Practice:
Danielle's Early Literacy Program
Teaches in a suburban middle class community that has experienced rapid growth
Has taught for 6 years in this school
Has a master's degree in reading certification and currently working on her second master's degree
Her K-1 class level consists of 24 children; 9 Caucasians, 5 Asians, 4 African Americans, 2 Native Americans, and 4 Hispanics. There are 10 girls and 14 boys.
Create a supportive and accepting environment
Involve the parents, teachers, administrators, and children to form a classroom community
As the children grow, tend to their individual interests and needs by using thematic instruction and integrating content areas and skills in a meaningful context
Students should be responsible about their work and become collaborative problem solvers
As a teacher it is s important to grow as a professional just as it is important for students to grow as individual learners
Look for research based practices and stay current
Interactive Word Wall
Books separated by theme
Desks divided into groups using various letters until all 26 letters have been used
Posters, poems, children's work, and charts to convey the current theme of study
An organized and well managed classroom will establish clear expectations and consequences
Positive behavior reinforcement is very important
Take the time to focus on manners, school routines, and cooperation.
Use transitions to help move to the next activity (clapping hands, sing a song, etc.)
All materials should have a "home"
Take notes on things that should be changed about a lesson
Have activities ready for students who finish their work early (Pick a Pocket).
Types of Reading Experiences and Skill Development
Multiple strategies should be used to teach reading!
- Reading aloud whether it is by the students, teacher, or other and then as a whole discussing the story or creating creating things like a story board.
- This is very important for the students to practice their developing reading strategies as well as a chance to foster a love for reading
Types of Writing Experiences and Skills Development
Instruction should be varied
Independent writing ("Important to Me Journal'') where the teacher is able to help the students individually
Interactive Writing (example having a daily news report where the children record what they report)
Writing Workshops (the students write individually while groups are called over for direct help and instruction)
Sharing (students share their free writing)
Cross Curricular Connections
All curriculum is tied together through thematic instruction in Danielle's classroom.
Create units or activities that include many or all curriculum such as writing, social studies, science, math, and so on. Example: Reading a book which relates to a subject such as science or social studies and then completing a worksheet that requires writing
When students make observations or ask certain question use it to your advantage!
Example: If a student says that they noticed the little word ball in the word baseball it can be used to introduce compound words.
When planning the day always look at the content, materials, and time spent on activities are all age appropriate. The following is an example of Danielle's schedule for a day:
Children arrive at school and do independent work until the day formally begins. These activities could include checking in at the attendance and lunch stations, folder check-in and note basket, helper chart activities, journal writing, and buddy and independent reading.
Morning Meeting. The whole-group morning meeting includes the morning message, daily schedule, daily news, Word Wall, shared read-aloud, calendar, weather report, shared reading of literature, and a skills-based lesson.
Introduction of Learning Activities. The teacher describes and cooperative activities at the centers and provides time for children to get organized, so that they are working productively. This is in preparation for meeting with individuals in small groups.
Guided Reading. The teacher meets with the four or more groups of children she has organized, based on similar needs for literacy instruction. Each group meets for about 20 minutes.
Writing workshop can occur during the Language Arts Bloc. It can begin in the morning as part of the block and continue after lunch. Writing workshop includes a whole-group skills lesson, a writing assignment, and conferencing with peers and or the teacher to revise and edit.
The Daily Schedule and a Typical Day in Kindergarten
1.) The children arrive over a 15 minutes span in the morning which is when they enter they should check themselves in at the attendance/lunch stations, proceed to their cubbies, and unpack.
2.) They then place their folders in a designated "Folder Holder, " and their notes are placed in a basket (Note Basket) on Danielle's desk.
3.) After these routines the students should complete any "Class Helper" jobs that they have been assigned.
4.) As these arrival routines are completed, the children get their "Important to Me Journals" and record an entry for the day. The date should be recorded on the chalkboard for reference so that they can record the date of their entry. (There should be a page attached to the front of their journal containing journal ideas and four times a year the children take home a blank copy of the page and work with their family to come up with five things to write about in their journals. )
5.) As the children are doing this, Danielle takes this time to read any notes in the note basket. As they finish their entries they share them with Danielle who provides positive feedback to every child.
6.) Once all of the children arrive, attendance and lunch count are recorded. Two "Class Helpers" then deliver the slips to the office and two others lead the flag salute.
7.) The children then gather on the rug in the Literacy Center for the morning meeting, the daily schedule, the daily news, a word study skills lesson with the word wall, the calendar, a read aloud, and the weather report are all carried out.
A Description of Danielle's Language Arts Block
Reading Aloud & Activity
- After the other activities are complete, Danielle reads a story to the class. Before reading she tells the students to predict what they think is going to happen and see if it actually happens. After reading the story they discuss the predictions in comparison to what actually happened.
- At the end of the morning meeting, the class participated in an activity in which the children say a letter of the alphabet as they try to stretch to the sky, make the letter's sound as they touch their hips, and say a word that begins with that letter as they touch the ground.
Then students go to available activity centers which were:
Children pair off and read the same book together. They may also read separate book and tell each other about the stories they read. They select a book to read that deals with the current topic of study. Each student must also fill out an index card with the name of the book they read along with one sentence about the book.
- Writing Activity:
Children are to rewrite the story read to them earlier in the day. They can write just one word to depict a sentence or entire sentences depending on capability. The assignment for each day may vary, but they are to be related to the story read earlier.
-Working with words:
The words chill and slush have been discussed as new vocabulary words that focus on the current winter theme. The children find words around the room that have the sh or ch digraph in them. In addition they look for words that begin or end in digraphs. After they find them, words with sh are written in one column and ch in another.
- Listening Center:
The children listen to taped stories. For each story, there is a sheet of paper with a question to answer about the story.
While the children are in centers Danielle called her first guided literacy instruction group. The four children were working with a book entitled " The Birthday Cake". Danielle began the lesson by singing the song "Happy Birthday to You." Then they discussed what the song made them think of. A copy of the book is given out to each child and they are asked what they thought the story might be about. The children then do choral reading while pointing to each individual word. When they are finished each child is provided with a bag of index cards that had all the words from the story written on them. After modeling how to build a sentence using their word cards, Danielle asked the children to try and sequence the cards to create the story. At the end of the lesson, the children placed their book, finger pointer, and word pointer, and word cards for the book in their plastic bag. They put their bags in their bags in their cubbyholes, so that they could share their book and materials with their families.
Danielle met with two other groups. The materials and activities used varied for each group. To signal their center time was over she sang the clean up song. The children returned to their tables after cleaning up. The students then return to their seats and discuss compliments about with one another.
followed lunch and the children in the final stages with their stories have conferences with the teacher while others worked on books about winter and the teacher had a mini lesson about capital letters at the beginning of sentences and periods at the end before beginning conferences.
At the end of the day:
Danielle provides a shared reading experience of a story where activities like finding rhyming words, creating a T chart, and making sentences.
When it is time to go home
the line leader pointed to the words of the poem "Ready for Going Home" as he led the class in a choral reading.
Summary And Implications For Future Research
Danielle provides and uses many methods of instruction in her classroom. These are some of the things that we should remember and use as well:
1.) Use planned and appropriate literacy experiences
2.) Be positive and enthusiastic.
3.) Use various methods of exposure to literature such as shared read-aloud, independent reading, buddy reading, and guided reading.
4.) Writing experiences including journal writing, Writing Workshop, and language experience activities.
5.) In reading and writing include systematic skills development
6.) Have taught routines, procedures, and rules for using materials
7.) The room should be rich with materials, having choice, challenging activities, social interaction, and success.
8.) Speaking to the children with respect and adult manner
9.) Foster exploration and critical thinking
10.) Integrate the language arts curriculum and content area teaching by building one on the other to develop listening, speaking, reading, writing, and viewing.
Although a great deal is known about literacy instruction, research still needs to be done to research literacy in early development. We must study exemplary teachers more to determine how they become exemplary.