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C4 & CAM plants

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Jana Morwinski

on 22 September 2013

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Transcript of C4 & CAM plants

C4 & CAM the problems with photorespiration and how some plants solve them Problems : stoma has to be opened

opened stoma = water loss C4 plants sugarcane corn corn, sugarcane, millet, sorghum and grasses

vascular bundles surrounded by two rings of cells
bundle sheat cells
mesophyll cells

cell divided into two areas Procedure of photosynthesis (C4) mesophyll cells:
CO2 attached to PEP (phosphoenolpyruvate)
forms OAA (oxaloacetate) via PEPcarboxylase

bundle sheat cells:
OAA pumped inside
surrounding leaf vein
release of CO2 into leaf vein for Rubisco
high concentration of CO2 in BSCs
-> higher enzyme activity (more efficient) CAM plants
(crassulacean acid metabolism) pineapple cacti pineapple, cacti, wide variety of succulent plants

thick reduced leaves; less surface, but bigger volume

thick cuticle

stomata sunken into pits

two part cycle (day and night) Procedure of photosynthesis (CAM)
stomata open (CO2 enters)
CO2 fixed as organic acids
stored in vacuoles

light provides ATP & NADPH
carbon enters chloroplast's stroma
-> calvin cycle
higher concetration of O2 (couldn't be released)
-> more efficient CO2 bounds with PEP Carboxlase to prevent photorespiration Calvin cycle during night during day Thank you for listening!

Any questions? Why do plants do that? to prevent water loss

to survive in dryer areas Summary 3 CO 2 rubisco x6 3-phosphoglycerate 6ATP 6ADP P P P x6 1,3-bisphosphoglycerate 6NADPH 6NADP+,H+ 6P P x6 glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate P x1 glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate x2 glucose x2 sucrose x2 starch, cellulose glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate P x5 3ATP 3ADP 2P P P Ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate x3 6NADP+,H+ C3 (normal) Appletree separation only between thylacoids and stroma
no spatial or temporal separation Sources:
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