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The Great Lakes

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by

Jordan Kurniawan

on 12 February 2014

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Transcript of The Great Lakes

Labeld Diagram of Great Lakes
Lake Michigan
Length: 307 miles
(495 kilometers)
width: 118 miles
(190 kilometers)
Elevation: 577 feet
(176 meters)
Depth: 278 feet average, 922 feet maximum
(85 meters average, 281 meters maximum)
Volume: 1, 180 cubic miles
(4,900 cubic kilometers)
Water surface area: 22,300 square miles
(57,800 square kilometers)
Drainage Basin
Length: 206 miles
(332 kilometers)
Width: 183 miles
(295 kilometers)
Elevation:577 feet
(176 meters)
Depth: 195 feet average, 750 feet maximum
(59 meter average, 228 meter maximum)
Volume: 850 cubic miles
(3,540 cubic kilometers)
Water surface area: 23,000 square miles
(59,600 square kilometers)
Lake Huron
Drainage basin area: 45,600 square mi / 118,095 square km
States in vicinity: Wisconsin, Illinois, Indiana, and Michigan
Basin countries: United States
Cross Sectional Image of the Great Lakes
Fun Facts about Lake Michigan
1. The 3rd largest lake based on
The Great Lakes
of Michigan

By:
Jordan
Kurniawan and
Rian Bannick
4th hour
Science
Table of contents

1. Labeled drawing of the Great Lakes

2. How were the Great Lakes formed

3. Lakes that receive surface runoff from MI

4. Facts about the Lakes

5. Cross-sectional picture of each Great Lake

6. Explanation of the water cycle

7. Water flow through Great Lakes

8. How water flows from the Two Hearted River to the ocean

9. How water flows from the Grand River to the ocean

10. Drainage basins-watershed

11. Major drainage basins of MI

12. Map of drainage basin I live in

13. Dredging harbors

14. The controversy

15. Lake Champlain and why it is considered a 6th Great Lake

16. The Eerie canal

17. How it affects the Lakes

18. Invasive species

19. Bibliography








HOW THE GREAT LAKES WERE FORMED
In the last ice age, glaciers from the north pole came south into the Great Lake Basin. When the ice age ended, these glaciers retreated and left behind water that soon occupied low areas. These low lands, carved out by glaciers and filled with their melted remains are what we call The Great Lakes today.
Lakes that receive surface runoff from MI
Lakes that don't receive surface runoff from MI
Drainage basins for future use
1. Lake Michigan is the third largest of the Great Lakes (when measured by water surface)
2. the only Great Lake located entirely in the United States
3. Its name is derived from the Ojibwa Indian word mishigami, meaning large lake
4. Lake Michigan, by volume, is the second largest Great Lake

Drainage Basin

Drainage Basin Area: 51,700 sq. miles / 134,100 sq. km.
Basin countries: United States and Canada
States in vicinity: Ontario and Michigan
Fun Facts about Lake Huron
1. Lake Huron has the longest shoreline of the Great Lakes
2. The second largest by surface area
3. The third largest by volume of water
4.  Highest number of fish-eating birds that breed along lake shorelines
Lake Superior
Length: 350 miles
(560 kilometers)
Width: 160 miles
(260 kilometers)
Elevation: 601 feet
(183 meters)
Depth: 483 feet average 1,332 feet maximum
147 meters average 406 meters maximum)
Volume: 2,900 cubic miles
(12,000 kilometers3)
Water surface area: 31,700 square miles
(82,100 kilometer2)


Drainage Basin
Drainage Basin area: 49,300 sq. miles / 127,700 sq. kilometers
Basin countries: United States and Canada
States in vicinity: Michigan, Minnesota, Ontario, and Wisconsin

Facts about Lake Superior
1.The Ojibwe call the lake gichigami, meaning "be a great sea."
2. Could hold all the water in the other Great Lakes, plus THREE MORE Lake Eries.
3. Connects the heart of North America to a global economy.
4. Has rip currents that are dangerous to swimmers.
Lake Erie
Length: 241 mi
(388 km)
Width: 57 mi
(92 km)
Elevation: 569 ft
(173 m)
Depth: 62 ft average, 210 ft maximum
(19 m average, 64 m maximum)
Volume: 116 cu mi
(480 km3)
Surface area: 9,910 sq mi
(25,667 km2)
Drainage Basin
Drainage basin area: 30,140 sq. miles / 78,000 sq. km
Basin countries: United States and Canada
States in vicinity: Indiana, Michigan, New York, Ohio, Ontario, and Pennsylvania
Lake Ontario
Length: 193 miles
(311 kilometers)
Width: 53 miles
(85 kilometers)
Elevation: 243 feet
(74 meters)
Depth: 283 feet average, 802 feet maximum
(86 meters average, 244 meters maximum)
Volume: 393 cubic miles
(1,640 kilometers3)
Surface area: 7,340 square miles
(19,000 kilometers2)
Drainage Basin
Drainage basin: 24,720 sq. miles / 64,030 sq. kilometers
Basin countries: United States and Canada
States in vicinity: New York, Ontario, and Pennsylvania
Facts about Lake Erie
1. The lake is named after the Erie tribe of Native Americans who lived along its southern shore
2. The tenth largest lake globally
3. Lake Erie is the only Great Lake with three basins
4. Lake Erie is the Walleye Capital of the World
Facts about Lake Ontario
1. The only Great Lake that does not receive surface runoff from Michigan
2. The smallest of the Great Lakes in surface area.
3. Lake Ontario lies at the base of Niagara Falls
4. Champlain first called it Lake St. Louis in 1632
Water flow through the Great Lakes
Their are two water flow starting points. The first one is Lake Superior and the second one is Lake Michigan. This water flows into Lake Huron then to Lake Erie. The water later flows to Lake Ontario and flows down the St. Lawrence River. Finally, it flows into the Atlantic Ocean.
Water flow from the Two-Hearted River
The Two-Hearted River is an important river that provides water for all the Great Lakes.The river originates in Luce County, Michigan and drains out at Lake Superior. Water flows approximately 23.6 miles (38.0 km) through forested wilderness and drains out in Lake Superior. Then, that water flows into Lake Huron, through the Grand River into Lake Erie, then to Lake Ontario, and lastly go down the St. Lawrence River into the Atlantic ocean
Water flow from the Grand River
The Grand River is the longest and most important river in the water flow of the Great Lakes. The Grand River connects the water flow between Lake Huron to Lake Erie. Water coming in from Lake Huron is whisked away by the Grand River and flows 252 miles (406 km) through the cities of Jackson, Eaton Rapids, Lansing, Grand Ledge, Portland, Ionia, Lowell, Grand Rapids, and Grand Haven. It then empties into Lake Erie and travels to Lake Ontario then to the St. Lawrence River and end up in the Atlantic Ocean.
Drainage Basins
A drainage basin is the entire geographical area drained by a river and its tributaries; an area characterized by all runoff being conveyed to the same outlet.
Major Drainage Basins
The major drainage basin of the Great Lakes is the Great Lakes Basin. There are also important sub-basins that each Great Lake has. There is the Lake Michigan Basin, the Lake Superior Basin, the Lake Huron Basin,
the Lake Erie Basin, and the Lake Ontario Basin. These major basins provide water for the lakes and somewhat of a flood control, draining away extra water.
The Sun heats water in oceans and seas, this water then becomes vapor in the air. Ice and snow sublimate directly into water vapor. This is called evaporation. Evapotranspiration is water from plants that is evaporated from the soil. After this, rising air currents take the vapor up into the atmosphere where cooler temperatures cause it to condense into clouds. This is called condensation. Air currents move water vapor around the globe, cloud particles collide and grow. They then fall out of the upper atmospheric layers as rain, snow, sleet, hail, and etc. This is called precipitation. Some precipitation that falls as snow or hail, sleet, and can accumulate as ice caps and glaciers, which can store frozen water for thousands of years. Most water falls back into the oceans or onto land as rain, where the water flows over the ground as surface runoff. A portion of runoff enters rivers in valleys in the landscape, with stream flow moving water towards the oceans. Runoff and water emerging from the ground (groundwater) may be stored as freshwater in lakes. Not all runoff flows into rivers, much of it soaks into the ground as infiltration. Some water infiltrates deep into the ground and replenishes aquifers, which can store freshwater for long periods of time. Some infiltration stays close to the land surface and can seep back into surface-water bodies (and the ocean) as groundwater discharge. Some groundwater finds openings in the land surface and comes out as freshwater springs. Over time, the water returns to the ocean, to continue the water cycle.
Map of drainage basin I live in
I live in Clarkston, which is part of the Lake Erie drainage basin
Dredging Harbors
Dredging is the removal of materials from the bottom of lakes, rivers, and harbors. We do this because of sedimentation: the natural process of sand and silt washing downstream. It must be periodically removed so nothing gets blocked or stuck. We also do this to remove contaminates from industries through sewer lines to be able to protect wildlife and stop the contaminates from getting to other lakes.
Controversy over dredging
Lake Champlain
Hillary Clinton signed a bill on March 6, 1998 that allowed Lake Champlain to become the 6th Great Lake. This allowed Lake Champlain to be a Great Lake for about 18 days. The measure allows Lake Champlain to be considered one of the Great Lakes for the purposes of competing for research money under the National Sea Grant Program, a program through the NOAA. So basically, Some colleges and universities will get a grant from the NSGP to study Lake Champlain.
Jordan's opinion
I think that Lake Champlain should not be a Great Lake because it is way to small, it is financially driven, and it would take money away from research. I also think that Lake Champlain will mess with our lives growing up with the REAL Great Lakes.
Rian's opinion
The Erie Canal
The Erie Canal is a canal in New York that originally ran about 363 miles (584 km) from Albany, New York, on the Hudson River to Buffalo, New York, at Lake Erie, at the time completing a navigable water route from New York City and the Atlantic Ocean to the Great Lakes. The canal was the first transportation system between the eastern seaboard (New York City) and the western interior (Great Lakes) of the United States that did not require portage.
How the Erie canal affects the Great Lakes
Invasive species
An invasive specie is an animal or plant that is non-native to a certain ecosystem and can have a large affect over many plants and animals in that ecosystem. Invasive species have no natural predators so their population can increase without stopping. Some invasive species eat certain foods that other plants or animals need and so those plants and animals die out. This then affects the food chain. Some examples are the spiny water flea, zebra mussels, and sea lampreys.
Spiny Water Flea
Spiny water fleas are zooplankton (microscopic animals). Native to Europe and Asia, they were introduced into the Great Lakes by ballast water discharged from ocean-going ships. These microscopic fleas eat small animals like Daphnia, an important food for native fish. They can clog up fishing lines so fish cannot be caught. They also cause the decline or extinction of many native zooplankton.
Zebra Mussel
Zebra mussels and a related species, the Quagga mussel, are small, fingernail-sized animals that attach to solid surfaces in water. They are native to Eastern Europe and Western Russia and were brought over to the Great Lakes in ballast water of freighters. Zebra mussels cause a lot of damage to residents and wildlife. Anglers might lose tackle because zebra mussels cut them they may clog up cooling water area in a motor, and they also can cut shapes and scrapes on ladders and rocks. Zebra mussels can also attach to native mussels, killing them. They filter plankton causing aquatic vegetation to grow in deeper and denser areas, but get rid of food for larval fish.
Sea Lamprey
Sea lampreys are an eel-like fish that attaches with its suction-cup-like mouth to fishes, and feeds on their blood. A single sea lamprey can kill 40 lbs. of fish during its adult lifetime. Before control efforts, lake trout populations were drastically reduced or extirpated. They are the most historically devastating invader in the Great Lakes.
Thanks For Watching
I believe that Lake Champlian, the so called, 6th Great Lake is just to miniscule. It's not small compared to the average lake, but Great Lakes should be great, not a long sliver that isn't even noticeable from space(which is another big theme of the Great Lakes). It also is obviously not appreciated by the majority of people, since it was only a lake for 18 day
The Erie canal
Glaciers from the last Ice Age
Lake Michigan
Drainage Basin of Lake Michigan
Lake Huron
Drainage Basin of Lake Huron
Lake Superior
Drainage Basin of Lake Superior
Lake Erie
Drainage Basin of Lake Erie
Lake Ontario
Drainage Basin of Lake Ontario
Cross Sectional Image of the Great Lakes
The Water Cycle in a nutshell
The Water Cycle
Water flow through the Great Lakes
The Two-Hearted River
The Grand River
Example of a Drainage Basin
The Lake Erie Drainage Basin
Example of a dredging harbor
The Controversy, is that some think that dredging the lake, is a good thing, and it is beneficial. Some, think its not beneficial at all. Why it may be good, is because it essentially "cleans" out the lake of toxic materials that can get into the fish we eat, or the things that eat the fish, that die and get absorbed into the grass, and plants, which we eat, or the grass that our farm animals eat, that we eat. Either way it happens, we end up with some toxic material that has caused death to many people. So its a good thing, right? Not always. When "cleaning" out the lake, the machines can destroy essential parts of the underwater ecosystem. Thus killing the fish, starving whatever eats the fish, creating a chain reaction, just like with the toxins. So which is better? I believe that cleaning the lake would be much better, just look at how many families die because of bad drinking water, 1 child every 20 minutes! That's a lot! So in my opinion, making the water "clean" is better than not.
The Spiny Water Flee
A load of Zebra mussels on an oyster
The Sea Lamprey
Bibliography
Wikipedia.org
Google.com
Google.com/(images, maps, and news)
answers.Yahoo.com
sooperyooper.com
livescience.com
epa.gov
dnr.state.oh.us
dnr.state.mn.us

The Erie canal introduced new species to the Great Lakes since there was now a passage to get from river to river to the canal, to Lake Erie. So in many ways this brought harmful changes to the Great Lakes. Invasive species could now come freely and spawn more of themselves to dominate the Great Lakes. Overall, the Erie canal was not a great thing ecologically for the Great Lakes.
Facts about Lake Champlain
Length: 201 km
(125 mi)
Width: 23 km
(14 mi)
Depth: 19.5 m average, 122 m maximum
(64 ft average, 400 ft maximum)
Volume: 25.8 km3
(6.2 cu mi)
Surface area: 1,269 km2
(490 sq mi)
Full transcript