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Unit 11 - Systems Analysis and Design

Constraints, Costs/Benefits and Normalisation
by

Ben Holding

on 20 February 2013

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Transcript of Unit 11 - Systems Analysis and Design

Constraints, Costs/Benefits and Normalisation Unit 11 - Systems Analysis and Design By the end of this session you should be able to:


State 3 different Constraints
Give 2 examples of costs of a System
Give 2 examples of benefits of System
State the difference between Tangible and Intangible Benefits
Give one definition of the term normalization.
Describe the four anomalies that may occur when creating database tables.
Identify Unnormalised Data (UNF)
Attempt to 1NF,2NF and 3NF on UNF data. Objectives Systems analyst role is often viewed as an instrument of change:

As such you will be required to communicate with both users and management. Clear communication is key. Therefore being able to generate key documentation and estimation of systems costs, benefits, and budgets is important to allow comparisons against alternatives to get the optimal solution. You are an Instrument of change Can you think of any costs? Costs What would you consider to be Benefits? Benefits Individual Activity

Bristol City Creators In order for a database to be efficient there are characteristics it must meet. A database must:

Be substantially non-redundant;
Be usable by all the programs;
Include all the necessary structural interrelations of data; and
Have a common approach to the retrieval, insertion and amendment of data. Normalisation The costs will include the following:
Development
Installation
Equipment
Personnel - Programmers time
Projected operating costs
Development and Implementation costs
Operating and Maintenance costs Indirect costs the costs of staff time when they are involved in meetings, one-to-one interviews, taking part in training and other developmental activities, and are thus not doing their normal job. Sometimes this is known as Intangible costs. The benefits that the organisation could be listed as the following:

•Displaced costs
•Avoided costs
•Tangible benefits e.g.
Increased sales.
Reduction in staff costs
Savings

Intangible benefits e.g.
Improved Management information.
Better sales as marketing information and data analysis improve
Happier staff Tangible costs

Tangible costs are accurately calculated by the Systems Analyst. These costs are usually well established or can be discovered quite easily Types of constraints can include:

Physical
Legacy systems
Available hardware platforms
Organisational policies Timing
Costs In two paragraphs, write a recommendation that grows out of your consideration of their specific business situation. Costs and benefits

The results of the cost/benefit analysis will also be included in the requirements specification, as this summary will often be used to support the final decision-making process. Recommendations

At this stage, the recommendation will be to continue with the project or to abandon it. Which solution will be chosen from a range of alternatives will not always have been decided at this point. Alternative solutions

The final investigative aspect that must be recorded is evidence that alternative solutions were considered by analysts before a single one was recommended to the organisation. In terms of IT, there are four main alternatives in any situation three of these solutions are electronic and the remaining one is a manual solution:

1. Bespoke
2. Off-the-shelf application
3. Tailored
4. Improved manual system

Each of the above solutions has advantages and disadvantages for the organisation and the development team. Group Activity

Draw up a list of Advantages and Disadvantages for the following Systems Solutions:

1. Bespoke
2. Off-the-shelf application
3. Tailored
4. Improved manual system
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