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Competency Based Approach to Learning
Transcript of Competency Based Approach to Learning
ADED4F32 Facilitating Adult Learning
Assignment 3 Development of assessment procedures: CBL aligns with the behavourist orientation Development of instructional materials Example: Think about the math you've done so far. What do you think mathematics is? Description
Intended learning goals
Learning domains addressed
Criteria for successful implementation
Relevance to adult learning contexts Moreover... Attitudes or Abilities? Clark suggests that from a performance context, abilities makes more sense, while from a strategy context, attitude is better. Clark (2010) provides explanation in his web article "What does the "A" in KSA mean". NOTE: For a K-12 version, look at the Learning Process Questionnaire (LPQ) Competency based learning identifies the required competencies of a job or task and incorporates knowledge, skills and abilities (KSA's) in the delivery of training. Description According to Blakemore (2008), conventional workplace training courses are set up to meet a series of learning objectives that will be met (or not) by the end of the course.
Learning is measured against the objectives and tested during the course.
When training is complete, participants may receive a certificate of attendance. Blakemore suggests that competency based training is "more rigorous and more flexible" (p. 2).
Rigorous since the emphasis is on performance rather than knowledge recall.
Flexible since competencies are independent of the learning process allowing achievement through many means. What is competency based learning (CBL)? How does CBL differ from conventional learning? In conventional training, learners may lack skill in some areas but be awarded completion because they do well in other areas (Blakemore, 2008, p. 3). Clark says the "A" originally meant attitude, but was changed to ability as it was "deemed incorrect to change someone's attitude if they behaved correctly" (para. 13). In this presentation, the "A" will refer to ability.
When source materials are cited, the "A" will be presented as the author intended. Some resources referred to the"A" as attitudes While others referred to the "A" as abilities Underlying Theory Procedure Criteria for Successful Implementation Learning Domain Key
Features Resources Commitment Coaches/mentors Planning Maintenance 1. Competencies are carefully identified, verified and measureable. 3. Competency based learning is learner-centered. 4. Training is self-directed and flexible. 2. Supporting theory is integrated with skill practice. 5. The knowledge, skills and abilities that an individual already has are recognized. 6. Learners are individually assessed. AGENDA Part I Part II Part II is presented in a Word document
Please go to the Sakai forum to access The International Board of Standards for Training, Performance and Instruction (ibstpi®) defines a competency as "an integrated set of skills, knowledge, and attitudes that enables one to effectively perform the activities of a given occupation or function to the standards expected in employment" (ibstpi®, n.d., para. 2). Note... Therefore... Conventional learning... Competency based learning... One more point... whereas... The competency based approach requires all identified components to be met for the learner to be deemed competent in that skill (Blakemore, 2008, p. 3). 9. Records for all training and competencies are retained. 8. Competencies are assessed on knowledge, skills and abilities but actual competency performance is the main evaluation. 7. Assessment criteria and conditions are clearly stated and made public in advance. In my research, I noted that the
meaning of "A" in KSA differed. Intended Learning Goals Situational Constraints Successful completion of the eight step procedure previously outlined. Resources availabile to design, implement and maintain the CBL. CBL programs can become stale if resources are not dedicated to maintaining the program. Availability of facilitators/supervisors and their ability to act as coaches/mentors. Time commitment for learners, facilitators/ supervisors and maintainers of the CBL program. Learners require time to practice new knowledge and skills
Facilitators/supervisors need time to fill coaching and mentoring roles
Maintainers of the program need time to keep the learning materials up to date as well as documenting training/competency completions Management commitment to the program Maintenance of competencies to reflect organizational, industry and regulatory changes. Resource, time and cost commitments associated with competency indentification, analysis, program development implementation and maintenance may limit the use of CBL for many organizations. Individual nature of CBL may be a challenge for some learners. Due to resource investments, requires a respectable number of prospective learners and a long-term shelf life for the program. Learner shift to the self-directed nature of CBL may be problematic for some learners. Relevance to Adult Learning Contexts Competency based learning can be related to Knowles' 1980 (as cited in Merriam, Cafferella, & Baumgartner, p. 84) assumptions of andragogy: In a competency based model, all three learning domains can be addressed in the instructional design. Psychomotor Skills Hands The psychomotor domain is addressed in the skills practice and development that forms part of the instructional design to reach a competency. The cognitive domain is addressed in the supporting theory and knowledge an individual obtains to reach a competency. The affective domain is the most difficult to address in a CBL program.
However, if competencies in the affective domain are identified and instructional design is developed appropriately, the affective domain can be addressed. Cognitive Knowledge Head Affective Heart 1. Train individuals to perform specific job-related skills. 3. In an academic environment, CBL seeks to prepare students with the KSA's for the workforce in their respective field. 2. Be able to demonstrate the outcomes of learned competencies. 4. CBL in the workplace, seeks to prepare workers to transfer their KSA's to perform their job to reach organizational outcomes. The behaviourist orientation holds three basic assumptions: 1. Observable behaviour is the focus of study 2. The environment shapes behaviour 3. Principles of contiguity and reinforcement are
central to the learning process (Merriam, Caffarella, Baumgartner, 2007, p. 278) Behaviourist aspects of CBL include: Competencies are expressed in behaviourial terms
Learning outcomes must be measurable
Instructional design for CBT reflects Skinner's (1965) theories of behaviourist education as it "allows for learning in discrete chunks so that the shaping influence of reinforcement" is present and learners can "progress at their own pace within certain limits" (as cited in Hodge, 2007, p. 200)
Assessments focus on observable behaviours
Assessments are measured to a pre-set standard
(Hodge, 2007) CBL is the often used method for vocational and skills based training as "the emphasis in vocational education is on identifying the skills needed to perform in an occupation, teaching those skills, and requiring a certain standard of performance of those skills" (Merriam, Caffarella, & Baumgartner, 2007, p. 281). The basis for this eight step procedure is based on the research of Curtain and Ormond (1993). 1. Implementation plan to set the stage 2. 3. 4. 6. 7. 8. 5. Skill identification to develop the competency profiles. This may include a DACUM (Developing a Curriculum). A DACUM is a widely used job analysis process to identify the KSA's required in a particular job. Skills Analysis
Categorize skills from most general to the specific
Most basic skills may be applicable to many jobs/tasks Curriculum development:
In consultation with subject matter experts (SME's), design the training framework (keep in mind DACUM findings and skills analysis categories)
Curriculum developed with a modular based approach What are the specific outcomes? Accredited training program:
Could be industry based accrediation
Could be company specific accrediation Competency and prior learning assessment procedures
Competency based on assessment of activities
Combines learning outcomes into a meaningful assessment task
Assessment of learning outcomes carried out by a selected person(s), i.e. supervisor, SME, independent person
Competencies assessed on a hierarchy of standards, i.e. competent, proficient or master
Prior learning recognized
- Based on assessment, i.e. challenge a test, demonstrate a learning outcome (competency)
Record of training/competencies
- Develop a database to record and monitor the achievement of learning outcomes Self-paced instructional materials
Modular-based (that is, complete one module before moving to next)
Determine if instructional materials can be prepared in-house or can generic material be purchased
Select methods for instructional delivery, i.e. print based, online, instructor-led, video, brochure, job aid
Prepare guiding materials
- Trainee workbooks
- Supervisor/assessor guides
- Facilitator guides Launch the competency based training program What preparation (training) is required for facilitators, assessors, supervisors
Pilot the training program to test the effectiveness of the instructional design and assessment criteria This presentation will look at the competency based approach to learning from a workplace organizational context. Please press ESC key on your keyboard to exit full screen. Then press 'X' at the top right corner of the Prezi website. Attitudes