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Emma Leid

on 1 January 2014

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Transcript of Memory

a clear memory of an emotionally significant moment or event
memory: the persistence of learning over time via the storage and retrieval of information.
Memory as Information Processing
Human memory is in some ways like a computer information-processing system. To remember any event requires that we get information into our brain [encoding], retain the information [storage], and later get it back out [retrieval].
A Simplified Memory Model
Long-term Memory
: the relatively permanent and limitless storehouse of the memory system

Short-term Memory
: activated memory that holds a few items briefly, such as the seven digits of a phone number while dialing, before the information is stored or forgotten.
How We Encode
Automatic Processing
: unconscious encoding of incidental information, such as space, time, and frequency, and of well learned information, such as word meanings.

Effortful Processing
: encoding that requires attention and conscious effort.

: the conscious repetition of information, either to maintain it in consciousness or to encode it for storage.
What We Encode
Semantic Encoding:
the encoding of meaning, including the meaning or words.

Acoustic Encoding:
the encoding of sound, especially the sound of words.

Visual Encoding:
the encoding of picture images.
Flashbulb Memory
sensory input
attention to important
or novel stimuli
Sensory memory registers incoming information, allowing your brain to capture a fleeting moment.
Spacing Effect:
the tendency for distributed study or practice to yield better long-term retention then is achieved through massed study or practice.

Serial Position Effect:
our tendency to recall best the last and first items in a list.
Memory Aids
mental pictures; a powerful aid to effortful processing espesially when combined with semantic encoding.

helps techniques that use vivid imagery and organizational devices.

organizing items into familiar manageable units; often occurs automatically.
3 Types of Memory
Sensory Memory
: the immediate, initial recording of sensory information in the memory system.

Iconic Memory
: a momentary sensory memory of visual stimuli; a photographic or picture-image memory lasting no more than a few tenths of a second.

Echoic Memory
: a momentary sensory memory of auditory stimuli; if attention is elsewhere sounds and words can still be recalled within three or four seconds.
How Memories are Rooted in the Brain
Memories as impulses whizzing though brain circuits.
Leaving permanent neural traces.
neural changes in synapses-the sights where nerve cells communicate with one another through their neurotransmitter messengers
The prolonged strengthening of potential neural firing, called long-term potentiation, provides a neural basis for learning and remembering associations.
Hormones and Memory
Naturally stimulating hormones that humans produce when excited or stressed effect learning and retention-they boost it.

"Stronger emotional experiences make for stronger, more reliable memories."
-James McGaugh
Memory Systems
Implicit Memory:
retention without conscious recollection [or skills and dispositions]. [Also called nondeclarative memory.]

Explicit Memory:
memory of facts and experiences that one can consciously know and "declare." Processed in the hippocampus [also called declarative memory.]
Types of Long-term
with conscious recall
without conscious recall
Facts-general knowledge
["Semantic Memories"]
Personally experienced events
["Episodic Memory"]
Dispositions-Classical and Operant Conditioning Effects
Skills-motor and cognitive
amnesia- the loss of memory
The Measures of Memory
a measure of memory in which the person must retrieve information learned earlier, as in a fill-in-the-blank test.
a measure of memory in which the person need only identify items previously learned, as on a multiple-choice test.
a memory measure that assesses the amount of time saved when relearning previously learned information.
the activation, often unconsciously, of particular associations in memory.
Context Effects
Deja vu:
that eerie sense that "I have experienced this before." Cues from the current situation may subconsciously trigger retrieval of an earlier experience.

Mood-Congruent Memory
: the tendency to recall experiences that are consistent with one's current good or bad mood.
Mood and Memory
Mood serves as a retrieval cue activating other memories tinged with the same emotion these memories help sustain the current mood.
Retrieval Failure:
forgetting can result from failure to retrieve information from long-term memory
Proactive Interference:
the disruptive effect of prior learning on the recall of new information

Retroactive Interference:
the disruptive effect of new learning on the recall of old information
When do We Forget?
Forgetting can occur at any memory stage. As we process information, we filter, alter, or lose much of it.
in psychoanalytic theory, the basic defense mechanism that banishes anxiety-arousing thoughts, feelings, and memories from consciousness.

Misinformation Effect
: incorporating misleading information into one's memory of an event.
Improving Memory
study repeatedly to boost long-term recall
spend more time actively thinking about the material
make the material personally meaningful
recall events while they are fresh
test your own knowledge, both to rehearse it and to help determine what you do not know yet
Emma R. Leid & Julia Jacobucci
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