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I. Fall of Rome and Rise of Feudalism (CH 5 NOTES)

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Laura Glas

on 20 October 2015

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Transcript of I. Fall of Rome and Rise of Feudalism (CH 5 NOTES)

I. Fall of Rome and Rise of Feudalism
A. Rise of European Kingdoms
1. During the 5th century Germanic tribes spread into the Roman Empire.
2. When Rome fell, Christianity thrived and spread through the Germanic tribes
3. These tribes settled and formed Medieval Europe
B. Merovingian House
1. Clovis
b. made all soldiers be baptized into the Roman Church
a. Cried out for victory and promised God that he would be baptized.
c. Clovis died and kingdom was divided
d. Mayor of the palace
became the power
C. Carolingian House
1. Pepin the Short received permission from the pope to take the title of king in 751.
2. Pepin the Short's son, Charles took over.
3. This son was the sole ruler of the Franks.
4. He was given the title "Charlemagne"

D. Roman Emperor
1. defeated Lombards and Saxons in Europe
2. organized empire into districts
3. government’s goal was to maintain peace and justice
4. Christmas Day in 800 the Pope crowned Charlemagne "the Roman Emperor"
FYI: Charlemagne never ruled the Roman Empire that had fallen by the time he was king. He was crowned the Roman emperor because the Pope lived in and controlled Rome.
E. Rise in European Kingdoms
1. Feudal Lordship
a. After Charlemagne died, power switched from a central figure to local rulers to feudalism
2. Manorialism
a. Manor: self-sufficient estate where most people lived
3. European Monarchies
a. Power of king was moderated by his need for military
F. Preservation of Learning
1. Roman Catholic monasteries, became the center of learning
a. This means the Church controlled all education and who was educated.
Why is this important? Discuss for 30 seconds
2.Encouraged by Charlemagne

G. Growth of Papal Power
1. 5th century, Leo I, 1st to have title of “pope”
a. Convinced Huns to not destroy Rome
2. 13th century, Innocent III, has power over everyone including kings
3. 1074, pastors forbidden to marry
4. 7 Sacraments required to get to heaven

H. Christianizing of Europe
1. Not Christian in many ways;
but did believe the Bible was God’s word and impacted every aspect of life

II. Decline of Feudalism and Development of city-states in Europe
A. Why the decline?
1. Population Increase
2. Food Productivity Increase
3. Heavy wheeled plow
4. Fallow fields
5. Medieval warm period
6. Growth of Towns
7. Growth of population
8. Growth of trade
9. Less people needed on manors

Town charter: given by lord or king, allowed towns to govern themselves


B. Development of States in Europe
1. Rise of Strong Monarchies

a.
England
1. 1066, William the Conqueror, Norman dynasty
a. Conquered the British Isles setting up modern day Europe
2. Henry II, established circuit courts, providing a centralized judicial system

b . France---Stable
1. Hugh Capet organized power by conquest, marriage, granting town charters, and the Roman Catholic church
2. Phillip II, continued to develop a strong central monarchy seized English controlled land in France
sent out “baillis” to collect taxes and enforce laws

2. Legal Changes in England
a. Common law: uniform law in England, started with Henry II
b. Magna Carta: document that limited power of the king, signed by King John
c. Parliament: two advisors to the king controlled the “purse” (only they could approve new taxes)

3. Political Changes
a. Feudal lords and the Roman
Catholic Church resisted the rise of a central power
b. Venice: City-State struggled with
the Roman Catholic Church; often
placed under interdict (denied access to the sacraments)

What is a city-state? Discuss
III. Expansion of Europe
A. The Crusades
1. Seljuk Turks closed Jerusalem to Christians
2. Pope Urban II calls for a crusade to free Jerusalem in 1095
3. 1st Crusade gained control for a brief time
4. The rest of the crusades were failures (the crusades ends 13th century)

B. Motives for the crusades
1. Greater Roman Catholic Control
2. Wealth/land
3. Salvation
4. Travel/adventure
RESULTS
Death
Knowledge brought to Europe
Greek New Testaments
Middle Class
B. The Development of
Cities

CULTURE
DEVELOPS
Cities Emerge
Specialization of Work
City Flourishes
Invasions
B. The Development of Cities
IT IS A CYCLE THAT CONTINUES
Decline or Destruction
1. Technological Innovation

a. Mechanical clocks
b. Glasses (convex lenses)
2. Money Economy
a. Moneychangers: They knew value of different coins
b. Bank: : Italian “Bench”, place to exchange coins and
borrow money
c. Letter of credit: : allowed merchant to receive money at destination (without traveling with large amounts of money)


C. The Expulsion of Muslim Powers from iberia
1. Driving out foreign powers was a way to gain power and influence
2. Islamic conquers Iberian Peninsula in 8th century (Expansion of Islam)
3. Reconquista started immediately, finally ending in 1492 when Ferdinand II and Isabella I took control


http://videos.howstuffworks.com/discovery/35280-black-plague-1-video.htm

IV. Culture in Europe

1. Began in China and spread by trade ships to Europe by 1347
2. Could have been started by rats and fleas
3. Results:
a. 25 million people died
b. Roman Catholic Church lost power, as people realized it couldn’t save them
c. Jewish people killed
d. Crime
e. Ended around 1350
f. Hundred Years’ War resumes


C. Black Death

1. 1315, too much rain caused crops to rot, salt to become scarce
2. starvation for people and animals
3. 10-25 % of population died

A. Great Famine

Calamity=event that causes dreadful loss,
enduring suffering, or great misery
Examples: famine, war, plague

V. Calamities in Europe

3. Literature
a. Started using vernacular: common spoken language
b. Increased nationalism
c. Examples:
Chaucer “The Canterbury Tales” journey of pilgrims

C. Works of Art, Architecture, and Literature

1. During the Middle Ages, nobleman received an education in “liberal arts”;
all classes were taught in Latin
2. Universities started in the 12th centuries
3. Italy’s universities regulated by students
a. University of Salerno (Italy) Medicine
b. University of Bologna (Italy) Law
4. France’s university regulated by teachers
a.University of Paris (France) Theology

B. Rise of Universities

1. Code of rules that knights followed

A. Chivalry

1. 1337-1453, England and France fight over land in France
2. English king, Edward III, claimed French throne (since he was partly French) when French king died
3. French people didn’t want Edward and chose Philip VI as king
4. English won many victories, but were tired of fighting and there were not enough soldiers due to the plague
5. French found leadership and victory in Joan of Arc, a girl.

B. Hundred Years’ War

Art- used to teach stories from the Bible
Architecture- cathedrals

C. Works of Art, Architecture, and Literature
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