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14th Century Art in Europe - Chapter 17
Transcript of 14th Century Art in Europe - Chapter 17
Italy, France, England and Germany
Artists and poets begin to experiment with established conventions
Expanding class of wealthy merchants support the arts
Artisan guilds arise
The royal court of Paris = arbiter of taste in Western Europe - beginning of 14th cent.
Hundred Years War weakened nobility
new materials like wood, ivory and precious metals used for sculpting
smaller commissioned work
Manuscript Illumination - The Book of Hours
Metalwork and Ivory - The Virgin and Child from Saint-Denis
Embroidery: Opus Anglicanum
Architecture - Exeter Cathedral
THE HOLY ROMAN EMPIRE
Mystcism and Suffering - Vesperbild - The Hedwig Codex
The Supremacy of Prague
The Holy Roman Empire
The Parler Family - Church of the Holy Cross
Multicultural Holy Roman Empire
under Charles IV
different religions (Christians and Jews)
different ethnic heritages (Germans and Slav)
Charles died in 1378 - lost strong central government
Jan Hus - dean of philosophy faculty at Prague University and a powerful reforming preacher, denounced the immorality he saw in the church and was burned at the stake, becoming a martyr and Czech national hero.
Artists gain more social freedom that encourages ambition and self-confidence, individuality and innovation
Florentine Architecture and Metalwork - The Palazzo Della Signoria - The Baptistry Doors
Florentine Painting - Cimabue-Giotto di Bondone -
Sienese Painting - Duccio D Buoninsegna - Simone Martini - Ambrogio Lorenzetti
The Palazzo Della Signoria (Town Hall in Florence)
300 ft high bell tower
faces a large square or piazza - true center of Florence
loggia or covered open-air corridor - shelter for ceremonies or speeches
The Baptistery Doors
1330 Andrea Pisano commissioned for a pair of guilded bronze doors for the Florentine Baptistery of San Gionanni
completed within 6 years
20 scenes from the life of John the Baptist
The Baptism of the Multitude
natural rocky setting
gilded figures stand independant
curving folds of clothing warp around - 3d
courtly postures of French Gothic art
quiet dignity - particular to Andrea himself
, "Virgin and Child Enthroned" - Florence
Byzantine influence - the maniera greca ("Greek style") with dramatic pathos and narrative iconography including sylized features and gold for drapery
this painting set a new precedent for monumental altarpieces
over 12 ft tall
Virgin Mary surrounded by angels and a row of Hebrew Bible prophets beneath them
Hieratically scaled figure of Mary
infant Jesus - more man than infant
throne creates an architectural framework for the figure
highlight on fabric with thin lines of gold
viewer seems suspended in space
Virgin's engaging gaze, individually conceived faces of the old men give the figures a sense of presence.
volume with modeling in light and shade
impact on the future development of Italian paintings
Giotto di Bondone,
"Virgin and Child Enthroned
most likely painted for the high altar of the church of the Ognissanti (All Saints), Florence
Tempera and gold on wood panel
Cimabue discovered a talented
, Giotto, and taught him to paint
excellent imitator of nature - completely banished crude Greek style
revived the modern and excellent art of painting
Giotto introduced good drawing from
live natural models
(had not been done for more than 200 years)
compared to Cimabues' Virgin and Child Enthroned painted 30 years earlier, Giotto's Virgin and Child exhibits
greater spatial consistency and sculptural solidity
while retaining some of Cimabue's conventions.
gone are Mary's modestly inclined head and the delicate gold folds
Light and shadow
fully 3 dimensional figures - real space
scenes from the life of Christ
brilliant lapis blue, star-spangled sky
concentrates on the human dimensions of the unfolding drama
narrative skill - changing water into wine, raising lazarus, death of Christ- human suffering and the resurrection.
Giotto manages to draw us into the experience of these emotional scenes - personal devotion
Duccio di Buoninsegna
Sienese paintings emphasized the decorative potential of narrative paintings - considered more conservative
Altar piece painting for the church of Santa Maria Novella in Florence
contrasts with both Giotto and Cimabue's Byzantine drapery stylization and sense of three-dimensionality.
rich color scheme with luminous pastels
huge - wood panels boned together
painted on both sides
"Holy Mother of God, be thou the cause of of peace for Sienna and life to Duccio because he painted thee thus". - base of throne/artist signature
backside had episodes of the life of Christ - Raising Lazarus
December 20, 1311 - The day Duccio's altarpiece was carried from his workshop to the cathedral, all the shops were shut and everyone in the city participated in the procession, with "bells ringing joyously, out of reverence for so noble a picture as is this" (Holt, p.69)
Frescos in Assisi
"Annunciation" for native Sienna
the most important civic structure in Sienna
seat of government - similar to Palazzo della Signoria in Florence (rival)
sits on edge of public piazza
tall tower - visible from far
city council commissioned Ambrogio Lorenzetti to paint frescos for the Sala della Pace (Chamber of Peace) on the theme of the contrast between good and bad government.
"Effects of Good Government in the city and in the Country" - idealized portrait of the city of Siena
Panoramic - agricultural productivity
"Security" with scroll hovers above
private prayer books among wealthy patrons.
prayers to be cited during 8 canonical devotional "hours" between morning and night
Book of Hours
- everything the needed for pious practice - calender of feast days, psalms, prayers to saints, prayer for the dead.
worn like jewelry - among a noble's most important portable possession.
The Book of Hours of Jeanne D'Evreux
1324 marriage to King Charles IV - gives 14 year old queen
Book of Hours
fits easily in one opened hand
illuminated by Parisian painter
painted in grisaille - monochromatic - shades of grey with onlu delicate touches of color
Courtly style paintings - softly modeled, voluminious draperies gathered loosely and falling in projecting diagonal folds around tall, elegantly posed figures.
concept of space
, with figures placed within coherent, discrete architectural setting suggests a f
irsthand knowledge of contemporary Sienese art
Metalwork and Ivory
intimate in character
more emotionally expressive
tales of love and valor were carved on luxury items to delight the rich (An Ivory Chest with Scenes of Romance)
The Virgin and Child from Saint-Denis
rare survivor that verifies Parisian 14th cent. goldsmiths
characteristically Gothic S curve pose
originally wore a crown
holds a large enameled and jeweled
- the heraldic symbol of royal France- which served as a reliquary container for strands of Mary's hair
apple in Christs hand continues theme as Christ, the
, whose sacrifice on the cross redeemed humanity from the first couple's fall into sin when Eve ate the forbidden fruit.
English known for pictorial needlework
colored silk and gold thread
Mabel of Bury St. Edmunds - religios and secular articles for King Henry III
Gothic architecture/"Decorated Style" developed in the later 13th century
The change in taste has been credited to Henry III's ambition to surpass St. Louis, who was his brother-in-law, as a royal patron of the arts.
The Decorated Style in Exeter
Thomas of Witney began construction in 1313
He turned the interior into a dazzling stone forest of colonnettes, moldings and vault ribs.
Perpendicular Style - Black Death caused work on Exeter to come to a stand still resulting in a change of taste.
The decorated curvy style gave way to more angular shapes. Luxuriant foliage gave way to simple stripped down patterns. (the Perpendicular style )
The Perpendicular style remains popular today in the United States for churches and college buildings
By the 14th century, The Holy Roman Empire existed more as an ideal fiction than a fact. Italian territories had established their independence, and in contrast to England and France, Germany had become further divided into multiple states with powerful regional associations and princes.
The Holy Roman emperors, now elected by Germans, concentrated on securing the fortunes of their families.
The Hedwig Codex
Saint Hedwig, married at age 12 to Duke Henry I
mother of 7
entered the Cistercian convent of Trebniz on her husbands death
devoted rest of her life to caring for the poor and seeking to emulate the suffering of Christ by walking barefoot in the snow
carried a small ivory statue of the Virgin and Child
buried with statue and when her tomb was opened it was said that although most of her body had deteriorated, the fingers that gripped her beloved statue had miraculously not decayed.
The Supremacy of Prague
Charles IV of Bohemia was raised in France, and his admiration for the French king Charles IV was such that he changed his own name from Wenceslas to Charles.
crowned king of Bohemia in 1347 and Holy Roman Emperor in 1355.
Capital in Prague - "The New Rome"
Peter Parler to complete Gothic style cathedral, St. Vitus (The Church of the Holy Cross) Southwest Germany
Peter designed the choir in the manner of a hall church whose triple-aisled form was enlarged by a ring of deep chapels between the buttresses.
Unity of interior space rather than its division into bays
Peter turned St. Vitas Cathedral into a "glass house"
Charles IV built another chapel
covered walls with gold and precious stones
130 paintings of saints serving reliquaries, with relics inserted into their frames.
Master Theodoric = court painter
figures are crowded into and extend over frames to emphasize their power
Head of the Brotherhood of S. Luke
possibly a self portrait