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The Cardiovascular System - The Heart - part 1

Anatomy and Physiology of the Heart

Edward Catherina

on 22 February 2018

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Transcript of The Cardiovascular System - The Heart - part 1

The Cardiovascular System
The Heart

The Pulmonary Circuit
The right side of the heart receives oxygen-poor blood from the body tissue and then pumps this blood to the gas exchange tissue of the lungs to pick up oxygen and dispel carbon dioxide. The right atrium, right ventricle, and the blood vessels that carry blood to and from the lungs form the
Pulmonary Circuit
Systemic Circuit
The left side of the heart receives the oxygenated blood returning from the lungs and pumps this blood throughout the body to supply oxygen and nutrients to body tissue. The left atrium, left ventricle, and the blood vessels that carry blood to and from all body tissues
form the
Systemic Circuit
General Rule
Blood is carried away from the heart by arteries
efferent vessels

Capillaries: small, thin-walled vessels, interconnecting the smallest arteries and the smallest veins. Capillaries are called exchange vessels, because their thin walls permit the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide, other dissolved gases, nutrients, and waste products between the blood and the surrounding tissues
Base: at the level of
the second or third rib

Apex: rests on the diaphragm
Pericardial fluid reduces the friction between the two surfaces as the heart beats
Lt. Atrium
Descending Aorta
Rt. Ventricle
Vena cava
Trabeculae Carneae
Tricuspid valve
Rt. Atrium
Interventricular septum
Chordae tendineae
Bicuspid valve
Aortic semi-lunar valve
Lt. Pulmonary
Lt. Pulmonary
Pulmonary trunk
Pulmonary semi-lunar
Vena cava
Rt. Pulmonary
Rt. Pulmonary
Lt. Ventricle
Surface Anatomy
of the

Anatomy of the Heart
Location: within the pericardial sac of the mediastinum
Near the anterior chest wall, posterior to the sternum
The "Great Vessels" are connected to the superior end of the attached base, behind the sternum at the level of the second costal cartilage
The inferior, pointed tip of the heart is the free apex, at the level of the fifth intercostal space to the left of the midline
Blood Flow:
Blood flows through a network of blood vessels that extend between the heart and peripheral tissue. There are two (2) major circuits; Pulmonary circuit and the Systemic circuit.
Blood returns to the heart by way of veins
afferent vessels
The heart is surrounded by the pericardial sac
which is made of the visceral pericardium (epicardium)
which covers the heart itself, the parietal pericardium which lines the inner surface of the pericardial sac
vena cava
vena cava
right atrium
right ventricle
pulmonary trunk
left pulmonary artery
right pulmonary artery
left pulmonary veins
left atrium
left ventricle
apex region of heart
ascending aorta
arch of the aorta
descending aorta
right coronary artery
fat in the coronary sulcus
fat in the anterior
left coronary artery
right pulmonary veins
vena cava
vena cava
rt. atrium
rt. ventricle
rt. & lt.
pulmonary arteries
arch of aorta
rt. pulmonary veins
lt. pulmonary veins
fat in coronary sulcus
fat in posterior
interventricular sulcus
coronary sinus
lt. ventricle
lt. atrium
A section through the heart wall reveals three distinct layers:
epicardium - visceral pericardium, composed of epithelial cells and loose connective tissue
myocardium - cardiac muscle tissue, blood vessels and nerves
endocardium - inner surface of the heart wall contains loose connective tissue and endothelial simple squamous cells
Pulmonary circuit
Systemic circuit
The circular and spiral arrangement
of cardiac muscle bundles in the
myocardium of the heart
The heart has four chambers, two superior atria, and two inferior ventricles
The atria receive blood from the systemic circuit on the right and the pulmonary circuit on the left
The ventricles discharge blood to the pulmonary circuit on the right and the systemic circuit on the left
Blood flows through the heart in one direction; the heart valves prevent backflow during contractions and relaxation
The Atrioventricular valves, the right tricuspid valve and the left Mitral (bicuspid) valve prevent backflow into the atria during systolic contraction
The pulmonic and aortic valves (semilunar), prevent backflow into the ventricles during diastolic relaxation
Coronary Circulation
Blood circulating through does not supply oxygen or nutrients to the heart tissue
Left and right coronary arteries branch off the ascending aorta
Lt. coronary artery runs towards the left side of the heart and divides into two branches
The anterior interventricular artery:
which supplies blood to the interventricular sepum and anterior walls of the ventricles
The Circumflex artery:
which supplies the left atrium and the posterior wall of the left ventricle
Rt. coronary artery runs to the right side of the heart and divides into two branches
The right marginal artery:
serving the lateral right side of the heart
The posterior interventricular artery:
supplying the posterior ventricular walls
The coronary sinus receives the low in oxygen blood from the circulation and returns it to the right atrium
Right Atrium
Left Atrium
Right Ventricle
Left Ventricle
The cardiovascular system consists of the heart, blood vessels, and blood. This system has
three main functions

of nutrients, oxygen, and hormones to cells throughout the body and removal of metabolic wastes (carbon dioxide, nitrogenous wastes).

of the body by white blood cells, antibodies, and complement proteins that circulate in the blood and defend the body against foreign microbes and toxins. Clotting mechanisms are also present that protect the body from blood loss after injuries.

of body temperature, fluid pH, and water content of cells
Full transcript