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From "Indio" To "Filipino"

History 111 Report - Group 1
by

Ramille Anthony Martinez

on 11 December 2012

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Transcript of From "Indio" To "Filipino"

Conspiracyof Maharlikas of 1587-88:
= Lead by Agustin de Legazpi, son of Lakandula and his first cousin, Martin Pangan (Manila and Bulacan)
= Failed because Antonio Susabau of Calamianes and Amarlahagi { datu of Bay, Laguna} revealed the plot to the Spanish authorities
=When the masterminds were caught, they were beheaded in public as a warning against their crime, and their heads were spiked for public exhibition.
=Their houses were plowed and sown with salt, and all their properties were sequestered.
=The minor datus were banished to Mexico {among them were Pitong Gatang, Felipe Salonga and Dionisio Kapulong} and swore loyalty by anointing their necks with a split egg. Personal Motives Obstacle 2 Obstacle 3 Cavite Mutiny{La Algarada Cavitena, 1872} History of Revolts 1.Catalyzation/Affirmation of nationalism is done with:
Progressive political ideologies
Transfer of technology through liberal-minded men from Europe and America
Disenchantment with Madre Espana
2.Tired of being “only an individual… and not a member of a nation”
Racial Discrimination From "Indio" To "Filipino" Rise of the Clase Media:
1.Clase Media{Middle Class} rose up from the economic boom derived from the expanded agricultures and commerce by the rising native entrepreneurs
2.Personal Possessions became indicators of social status
by former leaders 1574:
Lakan Dula (or Lakandula) and Soliman, revolted in 1574 because of Lavezares who confiscated the land properties and tolerated the corrupt encomendero.
When Lakandula {baptized as Carlos Lacandola} and Rajah Sulayman {baptized as Soliman} were baptized, they were exempted from tribute and forced labor {until 1884} and got to keep their family names.
Filipino Nationalism:Accelerators: The intensity of animosities between the Filipinos and Spaniards, especially the friars, reached the highest point with the Reform Movement.
Anti-Filipino writers wrote hurtful literature belittling the Filipinos.
Filipinos were maligned and degraded as “neither a merchant nor an industrial, neither a farmer nor a philosopher”
“logical that the Indians, in their immense majority should receive, from friars and seculars, the epithet of chongos”
Fr. Miguel Lucio y Bustamante:
Filipino could neverlearn the Spanish language or be civilized.
“The Spaniards will always be a Spaniard, and the indio will always be an indio… The monkey will always be a monkey however you dress him with shirt and trousers, and will always be a monkey and not a human.”
Fr. Gaspar de San Agustin:
“God created the indios together with the rattan” meaning that the Filipinos “need beatings and the rattan.” October 1889 The Filipinos To Our Dear Mother Country,
Spain When a people is gagged; when its dignity, honor, and all its liberties are trampled; when it no longer has any legal recourse against the tyranny of its oppressors, when its complaints, petitions, and groans are not attended to; when it is not permitted even to weep; when even the last hope is wrested from its heart: then...! then...! then...! it has left no other remedy but to take down with delirious hand from the altars the bloody and suicidal dagger of revolution! Indio
= derogatory term for the indigenous people(like the Amerindians of America) Ex-datus= used to regularly receive handog (annual tribute or gift) Babaylans= want to go back to their precolonial animism Reasons for revolts: •Leaders who had lost their prestige, power and reputation to the occupying Spaniards
•Wanted to go back to their old ways of living, culture and regain their freedom. Personal vendetta triggered kin-related uprisings = lost their influence, however some were granted exclusive royal privileges along with the retention of patronymics = were declared idolatrous and unlawful; soon superseded by Spanish regular clergy Persistence of Paganism b) Bankaw, datu of Limasawa = baptized in his youth, later apostasized/abandoned in his old age

= he built an appropriate temple to the diwata and pressed 6 towns to rise up in arms

= said that they could petrify the Spaniards and that woman or child could easily change the enemies to clay by simply hurling bits of earth on them.

= was crushed by Alcarazo; Bankaws severed head was impaled on a bamboo stake and was publily displayed as a warning. His son was decapitated and a daughter was captured; 3 or 4 adherents were decapitated and 1 babaylan was burned
a) Tamblot of Bohol(1621-22) =outlawed babaylan; allured the unbelievers and newly- transformed Christians to return to their former beliefs.

= he slashed the bamboo and wine gushed forth and rice emerged; promised that the “mountains will rise up against the enemies and if any Indians died, they will be revived”

= was crushed by Juan de Alcarazo, alcalde mayor of Cebu, and his men.
c)Dagohoy of Bohol {1744-1829}

=started by Francisco Dagohoy; longest revolt; a cabeza de barangay

= causes of revolt: forced labor; refusal of Jesuit Fr Gaspar Morales to give Sagarino, his brother, a Christian burial, on the groud that he died in the duel and had not received the extreme unction

= Sagarino was a constable in Talibon who was slain while carrying out the order of the same priest; upon the order of Fr. Morales, Sagarino’s rotting corpse were exposed for 3 days in front of Inabagan church.

= along with the leaders of Tagbilaran, Baclyon and Dauis, Dagohoy proclaimed “free Bohol” ; refused unjust payment of tribute and forced labor.

= however, Dagohoy did not lived to see the ending of the uprising
Religious Motives: “Gospel, Gold and Glory” a.Miguel Lanab {NW Cagayan} and Alababan of Capinatan (Apayao)

= revolted in June 1625, by mutilating and beheading the Dominicans Fr. Alonzo Garcia an Brother Onofre Palao.

= compelled the Isnegs to escape with them to the mountains of Apayao, set fire to the churches, desecrate the images and stole properties

= 1626, a Spanish punitive force destroyed a great number of palms to starve the revolting Isnegs and forced them to surrender
b.Tapar= newly Christianized babaylan in Oton, Iloilo

= who proclaimed himself “God Almighty” and who “went about in the garb of a woman”.

= as a founder of a new syncretic religion, Tapar appropriated Catholic terminologies and did not find any need for Spanish curates as he believed that they had their own “popes” and “bishops and preists” with aides, “Jesus Christ”, “Holy Ghost” and “Trinity” who could minister to them in their own way.

= 1663, they slew Fr. Francisco de Mesa, burned the house and church, and fled to the mountains.

= the Spaniards captured the principal leaders and eventually killed; however their corpses were carried back to the port of Iloilo, fastened to bamboo poles in the Jaluar river as crocodile feeds; same goes to the woman who was named as their “Blessed Virgin Mary” (Maria Santissima) who was fed to the crocodiles in the mouth of Laglag (now Duenas) River.

= by 1664, "peace" had returned to Panay
c.Francisco Rivera {Tuguegarao 1718}

= appropriated himself as “Papa Rey” (Pope and King); Together with his believers, he “deprived all the citizens and dependents of the Church” the freedom to worship by instructing his adherents to give back to the Dominican missionaries the rosaries, scapulars, and other religious objects.

= described by a Spanish chronicler as “the only rebel chief with anti-religious ideas”

= he attacked, along with 18 spaniards, the Spaniards in Lal-lo, the capital, and killed more than 50 spaniards

= however, his Tuguegarao believers got tired of his “irreligious and despotic” rule and desired to liquidate/kill him.

= stopped by Juan Pablo Orduna who came from Vigan
d.Ermano Apolinario de la Cruz= was an ex-donee in San Juan de Dios Hospital; was not admitted to any religious orders because he was an indio.
= the revolt was divided into 2 phases:
Phase 1= 1832-41{founding of Confradia de San Jose till death of de la Druz}
= December 1832, Ermano Pule (18 yrs old) Br. Ciriaco de los Santos, and 19 others from Tayabas (now Quezon) founded the confradia centering around the cults of San Fracisco and the famous brown image of Our Lady of Peace and Good Voyage of Antipolo.
= 5 yrs later, it was named as Confradia del Sr. San Jose i voto del Santissimo Rosario and proselytized in Tayabas and Laguna (particularly in Lucaban(founder’s hometown), Sariaya and Majayjay.
= 1837, the brotherhood appointed Apolinario de la Cruz as principal founder and promoter, and Octavio Ygnacio de San Jorge(“Purgatorio”) of Majayjay, Laguna as hermano mayor
=the confradia met monthly on the 19th day (honoring St. Joseph’s day), paying a mothly fee of 1 real and rice, and any new member who could recruit in 12 new ones will be named cabecilla (who will receive 1 vote per 12 new mebers)( in this case of San Jorge who recruited 48 members=4 votes)

= its existence was unknown to the Spanish authorities till 1840, although, as early as 1833, some Filipino priests already noticed the group’s movement in the areas of Mount San Cristobal and Banahaw

= restlessness of the Confradia’s members started when it was outlawed/forbid by Governor Marcelino de Oraa in 1841. Members were arrested including San Jorge.

= November 1841= Ermano Pule was captured and shot, then his body was quartered; his severed head was hung in front of his house in Lual Street in Lucban; his 2 hand and 2 fee were hung inside cages and placed in the guardhouses of Tayabas. Phase 2= 1870-71
= the confradia reappeared on Corpus Christi day in 1870 by Br. Florentino Tuason{Filipino coadjutor priest to the alcalde mayor of Tayabas}

= during Lenten season, the members reunite and celebrate their rituals on Mt. Banahaw, where they had erected their church and covenant. Members came mostly from Nanca, Lumbang, Potol and Maluat, and they still give monthly dues. They proselytized by mentioning the alleged joint apparition of the Virgin of Rosary, Apolinario de la Cruz and Octavio Ygnacio de San Jorge, who ordered the revival of the confraternity, prescribing new religious rite and promising eternal bliss in the afterlife, abolition/elimination of tribute and freedom.

= members were not allowed to hear mass from other catholic church except at the sanctuary at Mt. Banahaw

= members were not allowed to be wedded by catholic priest other than their elected priest, Januario Labios {was called Profeta y Pontifice (Prophet and Pope)}

= the confradia died when Labios and his adherents were captured in 1871
Resistance to Spanish-imposed Institutions a.Magalat= chief of Tuguegarao(Cagayan); 16th century; with his brother,opposed the illicit tribute collection; stopped when Magalat was assassinated by some paid hirelings of Spaniards “General” Luis Magtangaga, chief of Malueg(now Rizal, Cagayan)
= assisted by the affluent/rich chief of Tuao, Tomas Sinaguingan, led the Itawis and Gaddangs (“Irayas”) in the middle Cagayan to rise up in 1718, mobilizing a force of 3000 men to oust the hated alcalde mayor for collecting tributes, most especially during the time when the farmers were in despair due to migratory locust who wreaked the agriculture on the province. Like other revolts, it also failed. Diego Silang= December 1762; opposed the exaction of comun(annual tribute of 1 real fuerte), drafting of polistas, and other unscrupulous practices of new alcalde mayor, Antonio Zabala
= headed the revolt in December 1762, accompanied by the different cabos representing 2 Ilocos(Ilocos Norte, Ilocos Sur), Abra and Cagayan.
= engendered/caused by the manifesto of the English India Company Provisional Government of May 1763 which guaranteed
“… to treat the Natives with the almost humanity, leaving them in quiet Possession of their Properties, and in the free Exercise of their Religion, to free them from all Taxes and oppressions,”
Silang formally joined forces with the British. As a reward, Governor Dawsonne Drake entitled him “Don Diego Silang” Maestro de Campo General y Teniente de Justicia Mayor, together with the official sanction of recognizing himas the rightful head of Ilocos Government. The British Manila Council assured him of man and firepower.
in Eastern Mindanao (covering Davao, Surigao and Agusan)another rebellion broke out in Caraga 1629-31; also from unjust collection of tribute. Juan Ponce Sumodoy(Sumoroy)(1649-50)
= son of a babaylan; in Palapag, Samar; with a datu from Catubig, Pedro Caamug, headed an uprising that spread as far as Bicol, Leyte, Central Visayas and Northern Mindanao; opposed Governor Diego Fajardo’s order of the recruitment of the polo y servicios personales for the building of the galleons and warships in Cavite
= the revolt was contained by using Christian Lutaws (Samal) under Francisco Ugbo and Alonso Macombon who arrived in Palapag in May 1650.
= by early July, they captured Sumodoy’s mother, dragged her and threw her over a cliff. Sumodoy’s head was later presented to the alcalde mayor by two of his former followers.
Juan Caragay= Pangasinan; 1719; unlawful collection of tribute and draft labor; while successful murdering the unjust provincial governor, he was later slain by loyal reinforcements from Dagupan and Binmaley headed by Juan Ramos, marshal-of-camp, of Mangaldan Juan de la Cruz Pilaris= 1762; Binalatongan (now San Carlos City), Pangasinan; spearheaded against Joaquin de Gamboa {ordered to increase a regular tribute of 1 real fuerte(25 cents) to 2.5 reales (1.5 reales more) to cover the expenses for the yearly elections and payments of the alocytes and choir singers, in spite of the natural disasters they had been experiencingwhich easily spread to neighboring provinces as far as Tarlac
= was betrayed by his own sister and hanged in Lingayen and was quartered pig-style and publicly exhibited at the 6 bridges of Binalatongan Lagutao(Labutao) revolt(1785)= Cagayan; due to the implementation of the estanco (tobacco monopoly) along with the tribute exaction.
= 2 Kalinga pagan chiefs, Lagutao and shaman, Baladdon, in the Cagayan Valley, led the revolt in Ituy and Paniqui (present Isabela)
=On the Last day of March 1785, Lagutao presented himself to his followers as the “liberator” from the Spanish impositions
= as a counter- offensive, the authorities mustered 300 men, reinforced by 2000 auxiliaries under the command of Mateo Cabal of Cagayan who killed the leader, his brother, son-in-law, and 11 others and captered 81 men, women, youths and children.
Samal Mutiny(1787)= Samal, Bataan; led by Lt. Andres Magtanong and Sub-Lt. Francisco Malibiran as a reaction to estanco.
= They killed the teniente visitador and the tobacco monopoly guards.
= the rebel’s houses were torn down, strewn with salt {so that no living thing would ever grow where the once stood traitors}; family properties were confiscated, remaining rebels were hanged, quartered, spiked and publicly exposed.
Ambaristo or basi revolt (1807)= Piddig(Ilocos Norte) july 1807; against the oppressive monopoly of spirituous liquours introduced in 1786, included the control of making basi(fermented sugarcane juice); Pedro Mateo de Piddig
= failed with the rebels summarily hanged and their bodies mutilated
=Bishop Bernardo Ustariz, meanwhile, proclaimed himself as the provincial head and issued an interdict/court order in the latter part of May 1763, and he excommunicated Silang.
= Fearing Silang’s threat to Spanish, Ustariz “befriended” and “blessed” the Spanish mestizo assassin, Miguel Vicos, an ex-silanista and who is also a friend of the ex-confidant of Silang, Pedro Buecbuec of Abra. The killerfired Silang at the back in the afternoon of May 1763, dying in his wife’s arms. As if this wasn’t enough, several principales of Santa(Ilocos Sur), in the belief that he was still alive, stabbed the already dead body.
= Buecbuec was rewarded an appointment as justicia mayor of Abra while Vicos wanted to run away to Cagayan for fear of feud from Silang’s kins
= alcalde mayor Manuel Arza y Urrutia of Cagayan initiated a revolt led by Mrs. Silang and his uncle, Nicolas Carino
= eventually Mrs. Maria Josefa Gabrila de Silang, “the first woman to lead a revolt in the Philippines”, Sebastian Andaya and Miguel Flores, with 90 loyal silanistas were hanged along the Ilocos Sur coastline(Candon to Bantay) with Gabriela compelled to watch the slow death of her loyal soldiers
= She was executed last, in Vigan, on September 20, 1763
Peasant Unrest{Land}: 1.April 1745= Tagalog regions{in the hacienda town of Silang in Cavite}; the maginoos argued the land surveys which took over a large portion of Latag(now Carmona) and Lantic which were unjustly awardedto the Cinese mestizo tenants of the Dominican-owned friar estate of Binan(Laguna). A common saying that in Cavite “Land grows each year”
= Led by the principales of Silang under:
Joseph de la Vega, Francisco Santos de Medina, Ignacio Marcelo, Julio Lopez de Montaya, Andres Pulido and Francisco Gonzales
= assaulted the controversial hacienda in April 1745
= the unrest spread as far as Meycauayan, in Bulacan, by June
= spread to Batangas by October 1745
= soon failed
2.1822= same hacienda towns of Cavite; headed by Luis de los Santos(“Parang”) and Juan Silvestre(“Juan Upay”).
= 48 farmers{tagged as a reunion of bandits” joined and the unrest spread to the provinces of Cavite, Batangas, Laguna, Tondo, Bulacan, Bataan and Pampanga
= this was actually a continuation of a former struggle originated 8 years ago but intensified by forced labor and exaction of tribute in form of firewood for the construction in the Imus church
= Parang and Upay temporarily surrendered in 1828 through amnesty but resumed in 1830s, Parang finally died by execution in 1835
3.Mid-1860s= Cavite; Casimiro Camerino “El Tulisan “ headed an uprising
= 1869= granted amnesty by Governor-General Carlos Maria de la Torre, and some of his men were assigned to the rural police force called Compania de Guias de la Provincia de Cavite
= Camerino became colonel of the force but was later executed by the garrote vil The Moro Resistance Failure of Revolts Filipino Nationalism: Decelerators Louis L. Snyder defines nationalism as
… a condition of mind, feeling or sentiment of a group of people living in a well-defined geographical area, speaking a common language, possessing a literature in which the aspirations of the nation have been expressed, being attached to common traditions, and, in some cases, having a common religion…
Filipinos = Spaniards born in the Philippines The Philippines in World Commerce (1834-98):
1.= opening of the port to international trade results in tremendous socio-economic changes for Filipinos(1834)
= with the opening of these ports ensued greater demands for export crops such rice, sugar, abaca, tobacco, and indigo, where Filipino and Chinese mestizos profited highly
= in 1810, the total value of Philippine exports was only P4,795,000.00 and by 1894, it increased to P33, 149,984.00.
= in 1810, the total imports worth P5,329,000.00 and by 1894 it increased to P28,558,552
= the Mexico silver dollar (Peso) devalued from $1.030 in 1810 to $.531 in 1896.
2.Mail service between Manila and Cavite as early as 1839
3.1880s= Hotel de Oriente & Fonda de Lala (both in Binondo)
4.1852; Banco Espanol-Filipino de Isabel II:1882;Monte de Piedad
5.1846= first daily newspaper; banned pornography as early as 1857
6.Entertainment
Impact of European liberalism and the administration of Carlos de la Torre
According to Pardo de Tavera, but “modern ideas of liberty began to penetrate the minds of the natives.”
John Locke in his “Two Treatises on Government” suggested that the social contract between the king, who did not exercise absolute powers, and his subjects, means that if the king failed to do his duty and did not respond to natural rights, his subjects had the right to overthrow him.

Glorious September Revolution of 1868
The arrival of the liberal Goevernor De la Torre.Motto: “Los hijos de los leones son tambienleones” (“Lion cubs are also Lions”)De la Torre was disliked by the Spaniards of Manila.He abolished press espionage and proclaimed freedom of speech.He instructed to intercept, mails coming from prominent Filipino leaders and priest.he was responsible for the arrest and imprisonment of the student leader of Juventud Escolar Liberal.

Regular-Secular Conflicts:
1583= Philip II proclaimed that parish administration pertained to the seculars
1753= Ferdinand VI proclaimed that there were enough seculars to replace the regulars and put th regulars under diocesan visitation and royal patronage
1774= Archbishop Basilio Santa Justa decided to uphold the diocese’s authority over the parishes and accepted the resignations of the regular priests. He assigned secular priests to take their place. Since there were not enough seculars to fill all the vacancies the Archbishop hastened the ordination of Filipino seculars. November 9, 1774= A royal decree was issued, provided for the secularization of all parishes or the transfer of parochial administration from the regular friars to the secular priests.
1864= According to Fr. Jose Burgos in his “Manifesto que a la noble nacion Espanola”, it was the friars who “have been utilizing the infamous use of undervaluing the capacity and fitness of the Filipino Clergy so as to make themselves perpetual curates in the Islands”
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