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Transcript of Industrial Revolution
Economic and technological movement that happened in the United Kingdom during the 18th and 19th centuries (1760-1840) characterized for the invention of the steam engine. It transformed agriculture and art crafting into a mechanical process in a large scale.
wealth, economic stability, solid taxation system.
natural resources, particularly coal and water.
developed channels of communication. (roads, ports)
great extensions of land.
why in the uk?
Population Growth (18th Century).
Consumers – Demand for products.
Producers – Manual labor for industry.
Development of agriculture.
Reduction in illnesses/epidemics.
Decrease in catastrophic mortality.
Migration to other places, mostly America.
Growth in production – more food.
Reduction in the number of farm workers needed due to technical improvements – more manual labor available for industry.
Demand for metals for agricultural instruments (the plow, etc.), and machinery.
Textile Industry: Weaving and spinning machines.
Steam engine – James Watt.
Reduction in the cost of energy
Industries in cities and not near rivers.
Appearance of machinery and manufacturing plants.
Accumulation of Capital.
Wealthy merchants and banks invested money in industry.
Cotton was exchanged for slaves.
Cotton – for textile products – sold in South America, Asia and Europa.
Development of Transportation
The Industrial-Capitalist Society begins
Manufacturing moves from workshops to factories.
More people live in cities.
Social classes are broken down by wealth: proletariat (worker) and bourgeoisie (middle class).
Job specialization: technical workers, employees, administrative, and professional positions
Borgeoisie/middle class– improves their standard of living.
Proletariat/worker– greater exploitation.
Workers movement--workers associations are formed to defend workers.
Inequality among countries: Developed and Not Developed.
The population continued to grow.
CAPITALISM AND ITS DEVELOPMENT
BASED ON THE IDEAS OF ADAM SMITH: ECONOMIC LIBERALISM
MARKET: REGULATING FORCE THROUGH DEMAND AND SUPPLY.
THE STATE SHOULD NOT INTERVENE IN THE ECONOMY.
SOCIAL CLASSES: Bourgeoisie AND Proletariat.
origins of the worker´s movement
Growth of the proletarian class as a consequence of the industrialization.
Harsh life´s conditions for the workers.
Long working day.
Robert Owen: Made changes in his own companies to improve the work conditions for his employees.
Chartism: The first important political movement of working men organized during the nineteenth century. Its aim was to achieve political democracy. Chartism took its name from the People´s Charter, a document drawn up in 1838, by the London Working Men´s Association. The charter demanded universal male suffrage, payment for members of Parliament, the elimination of property qualifications for members of parliament and annual sessions of parliament.
Luddites: in 1812 attacked the machines that they believed threatened their livelihoods. Some historians, seen them as an intense eruption of feeling against unrestrained industrial capitalism.