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A brief history of animation
Transcript of A brief history of animation
Father of American animation
Created the first entirely animated film in 1906
Persistence of Vision
Discovered in the 1800s
Why your brain retains the image of what your eyes see even after the image is no longer visible.
The brain can recognize images as separate images if they are viewed at 12 or fewer images per second
28,000 BCE - Cave paintings
What is animation?
Comes from the Latin word
meaning "instilled with life"
Created when successive images are rapidly shown in sequence
persistence of vision
to fool your brain into seeing motion
Pioneered work on human and animal locomotion
A Brief History of Animation
Frames per Second
Each image on a strip of film is called the
If images appear faster than 12 per second, they merge into each other, creating the illusion of movement.
TV shows and movies are usually created at 24 frames per second
First female animator
Developer of the
First woman to direct an animated feature
Creator of the oldest surviving feature length animation -
The Adventures of Prince Achmed
Paleolithic artists drew multiple heads and limbs on animals. The images look superimposed until flickering torch-light gives them movement - creating a brief animation.
What is this madness?
The first "projector"- light was shown through one or more glass slides. The use of multiple glass slides created an animation effect.
Precursors to Animation
Images on each side seem to blend when the card is twirled.
Similar to the zoetrope except it uses mirrors in the center instead of slots in the side
The first form of animation to employ a linear sequence of images rather than circular
Pioneers in Animation
Created the earliest serious dramatic animated documentary to survive -
The Sinking of the Lusitania
Created the first 3D animation in 1911... using dead bugs
Women in Animation
First female director of a Walt Disney Animation Studios feature film
First writer at any major animation studio to become a director
While photography does depict its subject realistically, it still only captures a single moment in time.
Fortunately, someone came along and saw the possibilities....
Used stop motion photographs via multiple cameras
Proved that there was a point in a horse’s gallop when all four hooves were off the ground at once.
His photographs are still used as reference by animators today
1659 - Magic Lantern
113 AD - Trajan's column
Roman Emperor Trajan had this 100 foot (125 feet including base) marble tower to celebrate his victory in the Dacian Wars. If you were to unwind the narrative, it would be 625 feet long.
108 AD -
Britain. Images on the inside of the spinning
cylinder seem to move when viewed
through slits in the side.
are zoetropes that use strobe
lights instead of slits.
Ting Huan invented the first zoetrope. The
modern zoetrope was invented in 1834 in
around 1500 - Leonardo da Vinci
Studied anatomy and created drawings in stages of motion. While his were not animated, this type of sequential drawing is very similar to what animators do.
Industries that use animation
Law Enforcement and Military
Water current patterns
Experimental filmmaker, special effects expert, film teacher, director, and editor
Best known for his montage work. In the 1930s and 40s, a montage was known as the "vorkapich"
Studied under Vorkapich at the University of Southern California
Most famous for creating Gumby and Davey and Goliath
Worked for Art Clokey, doing animation on Gumby and Davey and Goliath
Used his animation experience to work on big films like
Star Wars, Empire Strikes Back, Aliens, Terminator, Ghostbusters, and tons more. Still working
on films today