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Transcript of carbon prezi
Carbon is one of Earth's most valuable resources. It is found in anything from body tissue to coal to even wood.
Carbon is the first member of group 14 and has mostly nonmetallic properties. it has an electronic configuration of 1s22s22p2. The two 1s electrons are tightly bound with the nucleus so the two 2s electeons and the two 2p electrons are valence electrons.
Types of Bonds
Carbon atoms form double bonds through sp^2 hybridization. Carbon the sp2 hybrid orbitals of both carbon atoms lie in the same plane. With ethene, its hydrogen also bonds with the sp2 orbitals, all six atoms lie in the same plane.
Carbon triple bonds are linear due to the linear arrangement of the overlapping sp orbitals.
Organic compounds are compounds that are covalently bonded and contain carbon.
Alkanes are stable because of their single covalent bonds, but they do undergo the combustion reaction. Because alkanes make up a lot of fossil fuels, combustion is a very important reaction for them. A combustion reaction releases energy, carbon dioxide, and water. The carbon dioxide released by the combustion causes concerns about adding to the greenhouse effect.
Hybridization can be used to explain the bonding and geometry of most carbon compounds.Carbon atoms that form four single bonds have four
sp^3 orbitals.The orbitals are pointed out toward the corners of a regular tetrahedron.
Diamond is a colorless, crystalline, solid form of carbon. It is the hardest material known to man. It is the most dense form of carbon, 3.5 times as dense as water. Melting point is above 3500C. Their structure is tetrahedron oriented. The distance between each atom is 154 pm. Diamonds are used for drilling, cutting, and grinding. It can conduct heat, five times more readily than copper or silver. This happens because of how close the atoms are. It does not conduct electricity because all of the valence electrons are bonded.
It is super soft and feels greasy. the carbon atoms in it form thin hexagonal plates. The distance between nuclei of the adjacent carbon atoms withing a layer has been measured to 142 pm but the distance to another adjacent layer is 335 pm. Only weak london dispersion holds them together. Because of the weak attraction the layers can slide paast each other. within each layer a carbon is only bonded to three carbon atoms. These bonds are examples of resonance hyprid bonds. they can be though of as delocalized electrns which means they can be shared by more than two atoms. It has a high melting point, it is a good conductor. as well as pencils, it can be used as graphite fibers that are less dense, but stronger and stiffer than steel. It has been used in sporting goods and aircrafts.
It was discovered in the mid 1980s by Richard E.Smalley, Robert F. Curl, Harold W Kroto. It is part of the soot created by burning carbon materials in low oxygen. They have a spherical structure and were named after the Buckminster Fuller. or "buckminsterfullerence". Most stable version contain 60 atoms. There is no real use for it yet. also called the buckball.
Carbon-Carbon bonding : Carbon bonds covalently with other carbons to form long chains and rings (catenation).
Bonding to other elements : Carbon will easily bond to elements that have similar electronegativity to it, like hydrogen. Carbon and these elements form organic compounds.
Isomers : Compounds can have the same molecular formula, but different structural formulas.
A structural formula shows the bonding and arrangement of atoms along with the number of the different types of atoms in a molecule.They are used to differentiate between isomers.
Structural Isomers : Isomers in which atoms are bonded together in different orders.
Geometric Isomers : The order of the atoms bonding is the same, but the arrangement of the atoms is different. For geometric isomers to exist, there has to be a rigid structure to prevent free rotation around a bond in the molecule.
Hydrocarbons that contain only single bonds
Branched Chain Alkanes
Contain hydrocarbon branches called alkyl groups, or groups of atoms formed when a hydrogen is
removed from an alkane molecule.
Unbranched Chain ALkanes
Alkanes without alkyl groups branching off.
Alkanes in which the carbon atoms are arranged in a ring structure. They contain two fewer hydrogen atoms.
Properties and Uses
1. Gasoline and kerosene are mostly composed of alkanes.
2.Paraffin wax is an alkane that can be used as candle wax.
3. Fractal distillation is used to separate the components of a mixture through condensation of vapor.
-hydrocarbons with triple covalent bonds. Two fewer hydrogen atoms than alkene.
They are nonpolar and are used to create welding torches.
-hydrocarbons that contain double covalent bonds. Two fewer hydrogen atoms than alkane.
They are nonpolar.
An example is ethene, which is widely commercially produced in the U.S. and is used to create plastic and alcohol. It is also a plant hormone that can affect ripening.