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league of nations failures
Transcript of league of nations failures
The League of Nations was an international organization lasting from 1919-1946.
The Crisis of Teschen
Failures of The League of Nations
Headquarters were in Switzerland, created after World War 1 to help resolve any conflicts that may rise between countries.
"Therefore, any conflict between nations, which ended in war and the victory of one state over another, had to be viewed as a failure by the League"
Since the treaty of Versailles wasn't clear the border between Italy and Albania weren't distinctive.
Brought tension between the two countries
The league was persuaded to punish Greece because of false accusations brought on by Benito Mussolini
When men were brought out to find the border between the two they were shot down by men hiding
Greece was fined 50million lire (which is equivalent to 54 million dollars in America)
In 1919 a small town between Poland and Czechoslovakia was being fought over.
Both countries wanted ownership due to Teschen's valuable coal mines and natural resources
The League of Nations later deciding that most lands should be under the ownership of Poland
Czech was given one of the suburbs with valuable coal mines
Poland was furious, they wanted the coal mines
They decided to against the League's word and cause more conflict with Czech
Japan attacked Manchuria, 1930
"I don't think there is any prospect of war" said the League of Nations
Treaty of Riga:
More Problems Occurring:
Japan was becoming too crowded so Manchuria offered 200,000 sq. kilometers
The problem of bringing its political influence to bear, especially on the great powers.
Poland refused to abide by the League decision in the Vilnius dispute, and the League was forced to stand by powerlessly in the face of the French occupation of the Ruhr (1923) and Italy's occupation of Kérkira (1923).
During 1938, Britain and France tried a new policy- 'appeasement' (negotiating directly with Hitler); this failed in 1939 when Hitler invaded Czechoslovakia.
1929 depression in japan left their economy shattered
In 1920, Poland invaded land held by the Russians. The Poles quickly overwhelmed the Russian army and made a swift advance into Russia.
By 1921, the Russians had no choice but to sign the Treaty of Riga, which handed over to Poland nearly 80,000 square kilometers of Russian land. This one treaty all but doubled the size of Poland.
Appeasement, the policy of making concessions to the dictatorial powers in order to avoid conflict, governed Anglo-French foreign policy during the 1930s.
Germany and Italy realized that the democracies were seeking to avoid confrontation, so both countries continued to ‘test the limits’. During the Spanish Civil War, Hitler and Mussolini contravened the *‘Non-Intervention Agreement’, sending troops, equipment and planes to back the rebels.
This became a critical conflict in 1919, lasting until 1958
Problem was resolved in a treaty between the People's Republic of Poland and Czechoslovakia.
When Chamberlain became Prime Minister in May 1937, the pattern of appeasement had already been set.
WHy they failed...
Czechoslovakia had been created under Versailles, and included a large German minority mostly living in the Sudetenland on the border with Germany. In mid-September 1938, Hitler encouraged the leader of the Sudeten Nazis to rebel, demanding union with Germany. When the Czech government declared martial law, Hitler threatened to go to war.
Both Poland and Czechoslovakia were members of The League
This event breaking the agreement of supporting all members of the League of Nations
Failing at keeping peace between two states who ended in a victory and loss over land
Lord Lytton of Great Britain asked Japan to leave
This crisis resulted in both countries fighting. Yet...
Disagreement on ownership of Teschen between both Poland and Czechoslovakia still exists to this day
Struggles with the borders:
The league asked japan to stand down
Italy was defeated by Abyssinia in the battle of Adowa
Mussolini signed a friendship treaty with Hallie Selassie.
Accused Abyssinia of aggression and had troops in Somaliland and Eritrea (October 1935)
Power hungry, Mussolini wanted to join the Scramble for Africa
After Abyssinia appealed to the league they put an economic sanction on Italy which did not include their oil.
Why the league of nations failed?
America the strongest nation in the world never joined. Britain and France were not strong enough to impose pace on their own.
The League was muddled, so it took ages to do anything. Members couldn’t agree – but decisions had to be unanimous. This paralyzed the League.
The world-wide Depression made countries try to get more land and power. They were worried about themselves, not about world peace.
The more the League failed, the less people trusted it. In the end, everybody just ignored it.
The League’s main members let it down. Italy and Japan betrayed the League. France and Britain did nothing to help it.
Appeasement failed mainly because Germany did not have as good a reason to avoid going to war as it did to go to war. All parties knew that most countries wanted to avoid a war like the first world war, as many countries had nothing to gain from such a war, but much to lose.
an agreement that had been proposed in a joint diplomatic initiative by the governments of France and the United Kingdom.It was part of a policy of appeasement, aimed at preventing a proxy war.