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New York

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Lauren Purkis

on 24 March 2015

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Transcript of New York

Where is it located?
Why did I choose New York?
Physical Features
The highest mountains in New York are the Adirondacks which take up about a 1/4 of the New York state. They are found in the Northern Eastern part of New York. Unlike other mountains, they form a circular dome, are rugged and have several high peaks over 4,000 feet above sea level. Mount Marcy has the highest mountain peak in the Adirondacks with an elevation of 5,344 feet!

The Adirondacks are "new mountains formed from old rocks" as the mountains themselves are quite a new development having emerged only 5 million years ago but they are made of ancient rocks that are more than 1,000 million years old.

A quarter of a million years ago, the snow that fell in the winters did not all melt in the summers. So the snow's enormous weight turned the snow at the bottom into ice, over time becoming thousands of feet thick. The increased pressure softened the lower ice creating a glacier.

The ice travelled southward into the Adirondack region carrying soil and rock that had been scraped off of the land and embedded into it. As it thickened, the glacier moved over the hills and the highest mountains, breaking and lifting rocks as it rounded their summits. Over millennia, as glaciers carved away the landscape, mountains began to take shape.

The Adirondacks are important to the state of New York as they gain money and employment because of tourism.
People can sightsee, do ski racing, dog sledding, snowshoeing, bobsledding. So, the Adirondacks can benefit tourists and the people living there as there are lots of activities to do on these magnificent mountains.
They also create habitats for wildlife as they provide a safe environment.
People are affected by the Adirondacks in a positive way as they encourage the tourists who visit to take part in physical activity as there are lots of outdoor activities offered like kayaking, skiing or hiking etc.
Also, another way people are affected is that this mountain range seems like a very calm and relaxing place. I feel like it is a place that can just change your whole mood.
Lake Erie is one of the five Great Lakes-the great lakes are the biggest lakes in the country. Lake Erie is situated on New York's western border. Plus, Niagara Falls on the eastern end of the lake, is on the Niagara River. It is the most powerful waterfall in the whole of North America. Lake Erie is the 11th largest lake in the world!

All of the Great Lakes were dug out by glacial ice between 1 million and 12,600 years ago. We have evidence of this by the glacial grooves on Kelley's Island. Lake Erie was actually one of the first Great Lakes to be uncovered after the last retreat of the glacial ice. The oldest rocks that carved the basin of Lake Erie are about 400 million years old and formed in a tropical ocean reef environment.

Lake Erie creates it's own microclimate along it's shores, making this area fertile and popular for wineries, nurseries and apple orchards. Lake Erie is dotted with beaches made of sand or composed of small rocks from Southern Michigan to New York.

Lake Erie is important to the state of New York as the lake and it's shorelines are a major source of many minerals. Large reserves of natural gas, over 3 trillion feet, are located under Lake Erie.
Also, it is home to one of the biggest commercial freshwater fisheries in the world.
Additionally, it supplies water for about 11 million people!
Also, as I have already said, it has fertile land for apple orchards etc and has lots of beaches surrounding it.
This physical feature also attracts many tourists too, as companies have used this lake to create many different tourist attractions around it, such as a theme park called 'Cedar Point' and more. This then means that the lake offers employment and can financially benefit the people of New York.
People are positively affected by Lake Erie because this attraction also offers a few ways to get outdoors and exercising.
The Hudson River flows almost entirely within the state of New York, the exception being it's final segment, whereby it forms the boundary between New York and New Jersey for 21 miles. Lake Tear of the Clouds is regarded as the source of its main headstream, the Opalescent River. The river is named after Henry Hudson, an English sailor, who explored it in 1609. The Hudson River is actually quite short, being only 315 miles in length. The Catskill Mountains provide great views of the river, which are located west of it.

It was formed 15,000 to 20,000 years ago by glaciation-the process or state of being covered by glaciers or ice sheets. In the last ice age, a huge glacier carved out what is now the Hudson River Valley.

Although, the lower half of the Hudson River is not really a river at all, and more like an estuary-an arm of ocean that cuts into the land.
It is a part of the Northern Hemisphere as it is north of the Equator. It is also part of the Western Hemisphere.
It is also bordered by Pennysylvania and New Jersey to the South.
It is bordered by Vermont, New Hampshire and Conneticut to the East.
It is north east of the United States.
I chose to adopt the state New York because I visited New York City last year in December and I found the area very interesting. Also, this means that I already know lots of information about this state and I can find out even more during this project! Additionally, New York is a very exciting state as there is lots of things to do in New York!
This is the North America continent. The New York state is situated in this continent.
The Hudson River is important to the state of New York because, as I have already said, it serves as a political boundary between the states of New Jersey and New York.
Also, The New York State Canal System, the successor to the Erie Canal, runs into the Hudson River, north of Troy.
The River also proved useful for railroads once technology progressed to the point where it was feasible to construct the required bridges over tributaries.
Also, The Hudson River Park plays a big importance in the state of New York as there are many activities to participate in as you will see in this video.
People are affected by the Hudson River in a good way as it offers so many opportunities to get outside and do any sort of exercise in a fun way.
People can also be educated at this park with the different programmes/events they offer. For example, earlier in the year they hosted the Submerge Marine Festival where the children got to learn about lots of different things like robotic submarines and sea animals etc.
How has New York's physical geography affected people living there?
New York's physical geography will have financially benefited some of the people living in New York because the tourists that visit the state pay to go to these attractions. So, therefore the people that are hired will be benefited financially because they are making attractions out of these physical features.

However, the physical geography of New York can affect people living there in a negative way too. This is because of the extreme weather conditions they get which are blizzards as it is always very cold in New York most of the time so blizzards are expected. Blizzards can get very dangerous because first, it is very risky driving through a blizzard as it is very difficult with all this snow dropping onto your windscreen. Also, it is very rare but you could get snowed in and be stuck if the snow was that heavy. Also, extreme cold can lead to hypothermia. Finally, things like power outages can occur, pipes can freeze and regular fuel sources may be cut off.
The Metropolitan Museum of Art was founded in 1870, the founders wanted to open a museum to bring art and art education to the American people. The Metropolitan Museum of Art is one of the largest museums in the whole world! It is located on 5th Avenue in New York City and houses more than 2 million pieces of art spanning much of the history of human culture. It is famous for it's paintings but also houses: porcelain, musical instruments, historical artifacts, costumes and even armaments (military weapons and equipment.) The Museum also offers many events throughout the year such as lectures, performances, tours, family activities and more. The Museum is free but of course they recommend a donation of $25.

The Metropolitan Museum of Art has a big impact on New York State because it provides the visitors with useful historical and artistic knowledge. They can learn about a variety of different topics with the museum's guided tours, paintings and other historical objects which are listed above. Also, like with the zoo, the Metropolitan Museum of Art does offer jobs such as a historical tour guide and more.
The Binghamton Zoo at Ross Park sits tucked into the Northern Face of Binghamton's South mountain. It is a 90-acre zoo that was opened in 1875, making it the fifth oldest zoo in the nation.

The Zoo contains a growing number of a variety of animals such as amur tigers, snow leopards, howler monkeys, wallabies, penguins etc. It has a foresty theme to it with a lushly wooded environment. It is quite a small zoo as it is only 90 acres, but it is still very useful with it's 'zookeeper talks' including: andean bear feeding, otter feeding etc. It also holds many events to keep the children even more interested like: Gators on the Green Golf Tournament, Feasts with the Beasts etc. Other features of the park include: swings, a carousel, a playground, a miniature train, a native animal trail, an education centre and a gift shop.

The Zoo has a big impact on the state as it provides an insight into animal education for the children that visit in a fun and exciting way. It gives the children an opportunity to expand their knowledge on these animals and learn more about endangered species and caring for animals. It also has an effect on the state because the park can offer job opportunities such as: zoo keeper, a ticket sales person etc. and it can benefit people financially. Although, it may have a negative impact on the state as many people do not agree with the whole idea of zoos because people feel it is cruel to the animals as they are not in their natural environment where they have lots of space and freedom. However, zoos do benefit endangered species very well as it ensures they do not become extinct and carry on breeding to boost the numbers of their kind.

The Binghamton Zoo is important to the state of New York because, as I have already said, it offers children education on the animals in the zoo and they can also learn about endangered species and how important it is to take care of all animals.
Additionally, it can financially benefit the residents of New York because it offers employment.
Also, it creates awareness for endangered species and it is important as it ensures that these endangered species are protected, and breed to increase the numbers of their kind.
The Metropolitan Museum of Art is important to the state of New York as it provides history and art education for the visitors. They can appreciate the huge selection of paintings and learn lots of history just through the historical objects at the museum.
Also, it offers jobs so, the residents of New York can earn money from the museum.
It is also important to the state because it is one of the largest art museums in the world which shows that it is very famous and valuable.
The Statue of Liberty is a very famous monument located on Liberty Island in New York Harbor. The statue was designed by Frédéric Auguste Bartholdi, and was a gift from France to the USA. It is a statue of a robed woman, representing Libertas, the roman goddess, who bears a torch and a tabula ansata (a tablet evoking the law) which has carved the date of American Declaration of Independence, 4th July 1776. There is also a broken chain that is wrapped around her feet to symbolize freedom and a welcoming signal to immigrants arriving from abroad (most visitors do not see this feature to the statue when they visit!) So, there are regular boat tours for tourists that want to visit as the statue is isolated on it's own island.

The Statue of Liberty has a huge impact on New York as a state because it is the monument which represents Independence Day on the 4th July which is a massive event for America. Also, it provides many jobs and earns lots of money because of all the different ways that tourists can spend their money e.g; buying a boat tour ticket or buying a souvenir from the gift shop. Also, the visitors gain lots of historical knowledge as it plays a vital part in America's history.
The Statue of Liberty is very important to the state of New York and the USA too! This is because it is one of America's most famous monuments as it symbolizes the day that America gained their independence. This was a vital day in American history. It also is another way that America can represent the pride in their country.
Additionally, it provides the tourists with lots of historical knowledge about America as it serves a big role in the history of America.
Plus, there are many job opportunities with this monument so, this means that lots Americans are also financially benefited.
The Empire State Building is a 102 storey skyscraper located in Midtown Manhattan, New York City. It is 1,454 feet (inc. it's antenna spire.) It's name is obtained from New York's nickname 'The Empire State'. It stood as the world's tallest building for nearly 40 years! It was also the first building to have 100 floors. It's opening occurred at the same time of the 'Great Depression' -another vital but tragic event in history. When you visit, you are able to get impressive 360 views of New York City from the 86th floor observation deck and then the 102nd floor observation deck (which is also open to the public but not as many people visit this floor. )

This building has a big impact on New York as a state because it is a very famous monument, so it gains lots of money and tourism. Also, it provides the visitors with lots of educational information with tour guides and free interactive audio devices. It also plays a part in the history of America especially the time of it's opening because of the 'Great Depression.' Although, it does have a negative impact on the state as more than thirty people in the past have tried to commit suicide off of the building and because criminals know that this is a densely populated place there have been gun firings too. Only one person has jumped from the upper observatory, on 3rd November 1932, Frederick Eckert, ran past a guard in the enclosed 102nd floor gallery and jumped a gate leading to an outdoor catwalk. His body landed on the roof of the 86th floor observation promenade. Luckily, there have only been 2 gun firings. Although, there was one very recently in 2012 by Jeffrey T. Johnson.
The Empire State building is important to New York as it serves as a very famous and historical monument.
Also, New York is financially benefited as this attraction creates many different jobs.
Additionally, it is important as it even helps the shops that are on its street as the tourists that go to the Empire State will see the shops and then they will be benefited because they have more customers.
Finally, it provides education on the interesting architecture of the building, the history of the building (which includes the 'Great Depression' ) and also the science and technology behind the whole building and how it works.
Human Issues of New York State
One human issue of New York State is terrorist attacks. The most famous attack in New York was one of the 911 attacks. On the 11th September 2001, 19 militants associated with the Islamic Extremist Group, al-Qaeda hijacked four airliners and carried out suicide attacks against targets in the United States. Two of the planes were flown into the towers of the World Trade Center in New York City-which were also referred to as the Twin Towers, a third plane hit the Pentagon just outside Washington, D.C., and the fourth plane crashed in a field in Pennsylvania.

At 8:45 am an American Airlines Boeing 767 loaded with 20,000 gallons of jet fuel, crashed into the north tower of the World Trade Center. The impact left a gaping, burning hole near the 80th floor of the 110-story skyscraper, instantly killing hundreds of people and trapping hundreds more in higher floors. Then, about 18 minutes later after the first plane hit, a second Boeing 767 appeared out of the sky and turned sharply toward the South World Trade Center and sliced into the skyscraper near the 60th floor. The collision caused a huge explosion that showered burning debris over surrounding buildings and the streets below. Over 3,000 people were killed during the attacks in New York City and Washington, D.C., including more than 400 police officers and firefighters.

This issue has had a massive impact on the New York State because especially with the 911 attack, so many people were killed. These attacks do not benefit anyone, especially with the 911 attack, because these cruel people were committing suicide in doing so, therefore, it isn't like they have achieved anything. It will have left many families without relatives who died on that day. Also, the fact that it wasn't just the victims who died but people like fire fighters who were trying to save lives, died, which is not fair at all because they are good and innocent people doing the right thing. Also, it has a negative impact on tourism because if there are terrorist attacks, like 911 happening in New York then less people will visit because of the risks. This meaning the attacks basically scare off tourists and makes them think twice about going. Although, it has had a positive impact on New York because it has made them become more cautious and aware of the dangers and they have improved their security. You will see that every single famous monument will probably have security for you to go through to prevent things like terrorist attacks.
Since the early 1800's, New York has been the first port of entry for Europeans coming to the U.S. The Statue of Liberty was the first thing that most of the immigrants would see when they travelled to America. The first great wave of European immigrants arrived in the 1840's were driven by the potato famine in Ireland. The next two waves of immigration overlapped-the Eastern European Jews and the Italians. Migration from the 1840s onward followed a recurring pattern: as one group fled from New York City throughout the state and the nation, it was replaced by a new wave of immigrants. Yankees from New England made up the first great wave of domestic migration. Most of the migrants who came to New York between l790 and 1840 were Yankees; it has been estimated that by 1850, 52,000 natives of Vermont (20% of that state's population) had become residents of New York.

In the period 1995–2000, 726,477 people moved into the state and 1,600,725 moved out, for a net loss of 874,248. Those who moved out of the state generally went to places like Florida, New Jersey, Pennysylvania, North Carolina and California. The largest immigration came from New Jersey, with 97,584 people moving to New York.

Migration has a big impact on New York both in negative and positive ways. An advantage is cheap labour because we don't have to pay them that much money even though they are working really hard because it is probably better than what they used to earn in their old country as this is one of the main reasons why immigrants move. Although, some people have different views about people from other cultures coming into their country and there may be conflict over racial beliefs. Also, lots of people get annoyed with immigrants because they feel like they are stealing their houses and even some jobs which 'belong' to the people of their country. Additionally, normally if it's a different culture, it's a different language so they may struggle with communication in the new country.
How important is my state to the USA?
I think New York is very important to the USA. This is mostly because of New York City as it is the best city in America and welcomes large numbers of tourists into the country each year which means that America gains money from the tourists who go and visit the many attractions in New York City.
Also, New York has one of the best top 40 universities in America with it's New York University. This means that it is very important as if offers education that is highly valuable to employers.
Additionally, lots of famous people were born in New York such as singer, songwriter-Lady Gaga, actor-Charlie Sheen, academic, engineer, physicist and scientist-J. Robert Oppenheimer and many more.
Also, there are quite a few songs based on New York. For example, 'New York, New York' by Frank Sinatra, 'Empire State of Mind' by Jay Z ft. Alicia Keys, 'New York City' by John Lennon and lots more.

I used this source to find out most of the information on the Adirondacks. I also used a few other websites too but I only took very small parts from them and this was the main website I used for this feature. I also used it because it was quite reliable as it was the website of the New York state Adirondack Park agency meaning that they surely would not state false information about their park.
I used this website to give me some ideas for physical features and it also helped me with the location of the state. I found that this source was very trustworthy as all of the information on the website was correct when I came to look at each feature in detail later on.
I used this website to find most of my research for Lake Erie as it provided very detailed information. I could definitely tell this was a good source as the website is a charity that helps to keep the waters of the Lake clean. This highlights that they will be the people who know the most about the Lake and all of it's facts.
Unfortunately, this was the only website that could offer all of the information I needed. Wikipedia pages can be written by anyone apparently, so this indicates it isn't very trustworthy. Although, I did check with numerous other websites about most of the key information I got, to make sure it was definitely correct.
I actually used the official zoo website to get my research for this feature. This is because the website offered all the information I needed and I knew it was correct because it is the official website.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki Binghamton_Zoo_at_Ross_Park
I actually just used all of the official websites of the human features and some wiki pages. Even though, again, using wiki is not good, it was fine as I always used other sources to double check that the information was actually correct. However, because for the human features all I needed was a few facts I was fine with just the official websites for most of them.
Pollution is a big problem in New York City. This chart shows that the worst problems are with air pollution, being dirty and untidy also, noise and light pollution.
How could I extend my project?
I could extend my project by getting information from someone who has visited the whole of New York state or a resident that lives there. This is because, although I have been to New York City very recently, I did not travel around the whole state so, I could develop my project even more by getting some very detailed information of what it feels like to visit the other attractions in New York state outside of New York City.
Air pollution can effect someone's health and all the elements of the ecosystem. Air pollutants are created from many human activities. Most pollutants come out of industries which manufacture chemicals and other goods, from on-and-off road vehicles and power equipment and from energy facilities that burn oil, gas or coal. Pollutants emitted from tall stacks move high in the air, descending to earth to do damage miles downwind from their source.

Air pollution harms health and the environment in a variety of ways. Hot summer weather sets the stage for formation of ozone and fine particulate matter, two pollutants of concern for human health. Fish and wildlife are effected from acid rain and mercury in that air. Greenhouse gases (mostly carbon dioxide) in the air are changing the world's climate.

New York City is trying to deal with this issue with PlaNYC. This was released in 2007 to boost the economy, improve the environment and better the quality of life for all New Yorkers. This plan sets the ambitious goal to "achieve the cleanest air quality of any big U.S city" by 2030 and since the release of PlaNYC, the city has made significant strides toward achieving this goal.
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