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Ecosystem Management - Terai region of Nepal
Transcript of Ecosystem Management - Terai region of Nepal
The region is hot and humid in the summer months, and is composed of a fertile alluvial soil which is rich and in plant nutrients. The Terai is an area with extreme biodiveristy. There are many subtropical plants including pipal and bamboo. There are also large areas of thick forest where animals such as the Bengal tiger, the sloth bear and the Indian Rhinocerous can be found. Large areas of the forest have been cleared for agriculture and for timber due to poverty and corruption. The removal of large plants of the forest exacerbated the effects of monsoon flooding, causing severe disruption to communities downstream. If deforestation continues, the communities would be left with only small, isolated pockets of forest. this would have a devastating effect on wildlife and the local population who rely on the forests for income through tourism and for building and fires using the wood.
Sustainable forest management in Nepal
The aim of sustainable forest management is to provide a livelihood for local people, ensure the conservation of forests, and provide the Nepali state with considerable income for general development. This is being achieved through supportive national legislation, and through the development of local community forestry groups. The local groups develop their own operational plans, set harvesting rules, set rates and prices for products, and determine how surplus income is distributed or spent. Through the cooperative networks, small forestry businesses can work effectively together .
Successes for the community forestry groups:
Significant improvement in the conservation of the forested regions, both in terms of increased area and improved density.
Improved soil and water management across the region
Increase in the retail price of the forestry products - greater economic input
Employment and income generation though forest production and through non timber forest products
Sustainable wood fuel sources - 3/4 of local household energy
Securing biodiversity of forest areas
Terai Region of Nepal
The southern part of Nepal contains a rich agricultural area known as the Terai Region. This region stretches along Nepals southern border with India. It has a width of 25-30km. The Terai lowlands are defined by a belt of well-watered floodplains stretching from the Indian border in the South to the slopes of the Bhabhar and Siwalik mountain ranges to the North. The land is extremely fertile and is the main agricultural region of the country.
Terai region is the most populated region among the geographical regions of Nepal. The ecosystem of the Terai region is highly affected by the population pressure. This region is densely populated region so the population pressure is getting higher and higher. The people from the other regions also migrate towards the Terai region in search of good and cultivable land, job opportunity, quality education and security. The plain land of terai region is highly inhabited by the people. Because of the lack of proper exploitation of the natural resources the ecosystem is getting degraded day by day. Therefore the population of Terai region must be checked carefully and systematic urbanization must be done with proper plans and policies in order to have the Terai ecosystem in good form.
Ecosystem Management -
Terai region of Nepal
The Southern district of Nepal
Promoting Sustainable Agriculture
To prevent damage of the ecosystem, strategies have been set in place:
Promoting the production of fruits and vegetables in the hills and mountain regions to avoid further intensification of the region
Improving irrigation facilities to enhance crop production
Multiple cropping where more than one crop is grown on a piece of land each growing season.
The growth of nitrogen fixing crops such as pulses and legumes to enhance the fertility of soil
Growing crop varieties resistant to various soils, climatic and biotic challenges through biotechnology and genetic engineering
Improving fertilization techniques to enhance the fertility of crop yields
In recent years, Nepal has experienced violence that is closely related to climate change and regime change. Nepal is highly prone to natural disasters which have been more frequent due to the impacts of climate change. The 2008 flood especially generated numerous refugees who have spilled over into many communities located in Terai.
In the summer of 2008, the flood that resulted in killing 240 people and displacing 60,000 people broke out in the Terai region in Southern Nepal.
Terai, Nepal is known as one of the most vulnerable regions to climate change.The increased rate of snow-melting on the Himalayas raised the level of Koshi basin, one of the Himalayasnowfed watersheds in the country. Even though flooding of Koshi River in Terai has been predicted, the Nepal government failed to prevent it.