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Transcript of TRIFOCALIZATION
Commission on Higher Education
(CHED) was created on May 18, 1994 through the passage of
Republic Act No. 7722
, or the Higher Education Act of 1994. CHED, an attached agency to the Office of the President for administrative purposes, is headed by a chairman and
four (4) commissioners
, each having a term of office of four years. The Commission
acts as a collegial body in formulating plans, policies and strategies relating to higher education and the operation of CHED.
The creation of CHED was part of a broad agenda of reforms on the country’s education system outlined by the
Congressional Commission on Education (EDCOM)
in 1992. Part of the reforms was the
of the education sector into three governing bodies: the
for tertiary and graduate education, the
Department of Education (DepEd)
for basic education and the
Technical Education and Skills Development Authority (TESDA)
for technical-vocational and middle-level education.
MARK LESTER BUHAT
The Commission on Higher Education (CHED) is the key leader of the
Philippine Higher Education System
effectively working in partnership with other major higher education stakeholders in building the country's human capital and innovation capacity towards the development of a Filipino Nation as a responsible member of the international community.
Given the national government’s commitment to transformational leadership that puts education as the central strategy for investing in the Filipino people, reducing poverty, and building national competitiveness and pursuant to Republic Act 7722, CHED shall:
Promote relevant and quality higher education (i.e. higher education institutions and programs are at par with international standards and graduates and professionals are highly competent and recognized in the international arena);
ensure that quality higher education is accessible to all who seek it particularly those who may not be able to afford it;
guarantee and protect academic freedom for continuing intellectual growth, advancement of learning and research, development of responsible and effective leadership, education of high level professionals, and enrichment of historical and cultural heritages; and
commit to moral ascendancy that eradicates corrupt practices, institutionalizes transparency and accountability and encourages participatory governance in the Commission and the sub-sector.
Section 8 of R.A. 7722, the CHED
has the following powers and functions:
Formulate and recommend development plans, policies,priorities, and programs on higher education;
Formulate and recommend development plans, policies, priorities, and programs on research;
Recommend to the executive and legislative branches priorities and grants on higher education and research;
Set minimum standards for programs and institutions of higher learning recommended by panels of experts in the field and subject to public hearing, and enforced the same;
Monitor and evaluate the performance of programs and institutions of higher learning for appropriate incentives as well as the imposition of sanctions such as, but not limited to, diminution or withdrawal of subsidy, recommendation on the downgrading or withdrawal of accreditation, program termination or school course;
Identify, support and develop potential centers of excellence in program areas needed for the development of world-class scholarship, nation building and national development;
Recommend to the Department of Budget and Management (DBM) the budgets of public institutions of higher learning as well as general guidelines for the use of their income;
Rationalize programs and institutions of higher learning and set standards, policies and guidelines for the creation of new ones as well as the conversion or elevation of schools to institutions of higher learning, subject to budgetary limitations and the number of institutions of higher learning in the province or region where creation, conversion or elevation is sought to be made;
Develop criteria for allocating additional resources such as research and program development grants, scholarships, and the other similar programs: Provided, that these shall not detract from the fiscal autonomy already enjoyed by colleges and universities;
Direct or redirect purposive research by institutions of higher learning to meet the needs of agro-industrialization and development;
Devise and implement resource development schemes;
Administer the Higher Education Development Fund, as described in Section 10 of R.A. 7722, which will promote the purposes of higher education;
Review the charters of institutions of higher learning and state universities and colleges including the chairmanship and membership of their governing bodies and recommend appropriate measures as basis for necessary action;
Promulgate such rules and regulations and exercise such other powers and functions as may be necessary to carry out effectively the purpose and objectives of R.A. 7722; and
Perform such other functions as may be necessary for its effective operations and for the continued enhancement, growth and development of higher education.
The Technical Education and Skills Development Authority (TESDA) was established through the enactment of
Republic Act No. 7796
otherwise known as the "Technical Education and Skills Development Act of 1994", which was signed into law by President Fidel V. Ramos on August 25, 1994. This Act aims to encourage the full participation of and mobilize the industry, labor, local government units and technical-vocational institutions in the skills development of the country's human resources.
TESDA is the leading partner in the development of the Filipino workforce with world-class competence and positive work values.
TESDA provides direction, policies, programs and standards towards quality technical education and skill development.
Integrates, coordinate and monitor skills development programs;
Restructure efforts to promote and develop middle-level manpower;
Approve skills standards and tests;
Develop an accreditation system for institutions involved in middle-level manpower development;
Fund programs and projects for technical education and skills development; and
Assist trainers training programs.
TRIFOCALIZATION OF THE
Affecting the Present Educational System
Act No. 74
JANUARY 1, 1901
Laid the foundation of the Philippine public school system and made English as the language of instruction.
Magna Carta for Public School Teachers
, declared as its policy the promotion and improvement of the social and economic status of public school teachers, their living and working conditions, their terms of employment and their career prospects in order that they may compare favorably with existing opportunities in other life, attract and retain in the teaching profession more people with proper qualification.
Provided a ten-year teacher education program in Special Education for the teaching of the gifted, mentally-retarded and those with behavior problems
The Manpower and Out-of-School Youth Development Act of the Philippines.
Created the National Manpower Youth Council (NMYC) to increase the enjoyability and improve the quality of skills of the out-of-school youth.
Basis of Compulsory military training in the schools. it is also known as
"National Defense Act"
passed by the Philippine Assembly on
December 21, 1935.
Also known as
Education Act of 1940
, provides the legal Basis for the six-years elementary course, the double-single Session, fixing the school entrance age to 7, and the national support for the elementary education, compulsary attendance in the primary grades for all children who enrolled in Grade 1.
PD No. 1006
Considered teachers as professionals and teaching promulgated on as a profession.
September 22, 1976
And made effective on January 12, 1977
All teachers are required to pass the Professional Board Examination for Teachers before they be allowed to teach whether in public or private elementary and secondary school.
Created the National Computer Center (NCC) as the central computer policy body directly under the Office of the President.
Bilingual Education Policy
since 1974, requiring
as medium of instruction in Science and Math Subjects and
in all other subjects in elementary and secondary schools.
Pertains to broaden the scientific and technological knowledge and promote vocational efficiency, embodied in the creation of
Bureau of Technical and Vocational Education (BTVE)
Also known as the
Free Public Secondary Education.
It is the policy of the State to provide for a free public secondary education to all qualified citizens and to promote quality education at all levels.
All senior high school students are required to take
National Secondary Assessment Test (NSAT)
Established a scholarship program for courses that will encourage the youth to pursue careers in science and technology.
A Higher Education Act of 1994
Puts up the Commission on Higher Education (CHED) to take over from the Department of Education, Culture and Sports the task of seeing the tertiary education.
Abolished the NCEE to give the marginalized sector greater access to college education
Created the Center for Excellence in Teacher Education based on the following criteria:
highly educated, professionally qualified and experienced faculty dedicated to the philosophy, mission, vision and goals of the institution;
well selected students;
adequate library research and study facilities;
competent administrative and support staff;
well planned and relevant instructional programs;
adequate students services;
adequate student development programs;
relevant extension service and outreach program;
percentage of graduates who become teachers and
other criteria as may be established by the Teacher Education Council of the Commission on Higher Education.
Reorganization of the MINISTRY OF EDUCATION, CULTURE AND SPORTS prescribing its power and function and for other purposes.
Created the Technical Education Skills Development Authority (TESDA), which has the function of upgrading Tech-Voc Training.
Stretched the school year from 185-200 days
Mandated the holding of periodic licensure tests for would be mentors under the superviosion of the
Professional Regulation Commission (PRC)
The Governance of Basic Education act passed to rename DECS to department of education. RA 9155-2001 provided the overall framework for:
1. school head empowerment by strengthening their
leadership roles, and;
2. school-based management within the context of
transparency and local accountability.
" The goal of basic education is to provide the school age population and young adults with skills, knowledge, and values to become caring self-reliant, productive and patriotic citizens."
PATRICIA C. LICUANAN, Ph.D. Chairperson, CHED
BR. ARMIN A. LUISTRO FSC Secretary, DepEd
EMMANUEL JOEL J. VILLANUEVA
Director General, TESDA
is a systematic delegation of authority at all levels of management and in all of the organization. authority is retained to the top management concerning major decisions and framing policies that involve the whole organization. The rest of the authority may be delegated to the middle level and lower level of management. The administration of the educational system in the Philippines is decentralized into three foci (trifocalized) having three different agencies forefront the three educational levels of the system.
Reasons for pursuing the decentralization of the Philippine Education System are:
1. Poor quality of Education
2. Shortfalls in classrooms
3. Shortfalls in textbooks and teachers
4. Low achievement in science, math and language
5. Disparity in rural and urban areas in terms of achievement
Programs with Recommendations to the Decentralization of the Philippine Education System
1. The Congressional Commission on Education (EDCOM) report provided the impetus for Congress to pass RA 7722 and RA 7796 in 1994 creating the Commission on Higher Education (CHED) and the Technical Education and Skills Development Authority (TESDA), respectively.
2. Philippine Education Sector Study (1998)
3. Philippine Commission on Education Reform (2000)
PESS and PCER recommended other actions: ensure adequate
financing and improve the quality of basic education; slow and reverse the haphazard expansion of low-quality tertiary institutions;
provide equitable access at all levels so that deserving poor households and communities can benefit from public education provision; and
improve overall sector management through greater local participation and accountability.
4. Republic Act 7160 or the Local Government Code of 1991
Decentralization aims to widen the decision making while increasing responsibility and accountabilty. the local governemtn now play a role in construction, repair and maintenance of school buildings and other facilities of public primary and secondary schools, establishment and maintenance of extension classes when necessary, and sports activities at the division, district, municipal and barangay levels.
Education Reform Recommendations
1. Promote school-based management as a system of empowering the school to provide leadership and for the community that serves to have ownership of the school.
2. The trifocalization of education was intended to guaratee concenation on basic education and effectiveness in the delivery of basic education