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SLHS 519

Speech Perception Theories

Samantha Williams

on 28 April 2010

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Transcript of SLHS 519

Sammy Williams
SLHS 519
Speech Perception
Theories Why I chose this option/topic:
I'm a junior in need of writing practice since
personal statement time is quickly approaching
I'm interested in the research aspect of audiology
and am in need of practice with research article
interpretation and integration
What this paper intends to do:
Explain the views of certain speech perception theories (Motor theory, Direct Realist Theory, Fuzzy Logical Model, Acoustic Landmarks and Distinctive Features, Exemplar Theory, TRACE Model)
Compare and contrast these theories
Talk about criticisms for the theories
Talk about the current/future of these theories Motor Theory of Speech Perception
Liberman, A. M., Mattingly, I. G. (1985). The motor theory of speech
perception revised. Cognition, 21(1), 1-36.
Vocal tract gestures, NOT sound patterns, are perceived for speech (supported by how McGurk effect, speech in noise when seeing speaker)
"To perceive an utterance is to perceive a specific pattern of intended gestures" speech perception and production are intimately linked
/ba/ vs /da/ vs /ga/--> categorical perception- by how ppl put sounds into distinct categories even tho they were presented in a varying continuum.

Direct Realist Theory of Speech Perception (Carol Fowler)
Perceived object is actual vocal tract movements NOT abstract phonemes or intended genstures
Perceive gestures b/c info in signal specifies the gesture that form it NOT specialized decoder
Bypasses lack of invariance problem by asserting that different sounds are units Fuzzy Logical Model of Speech Perception
Massaro, D. W. (1989). Testing between the TRACE Model and the Fuzzy Logical Model of Speech
Perception. Cognitive Psychology, 21(3), 398-421.
3 stage process: "Continuously valued features are evaluated, integrated, and matched against prototype descriptions in memory, and an identification decision is made on teh basis of the relative goodness of match of the stimulus information with the relevant prototype descriptions."
Listeners remember speech sounds in graded manner (and compare to prototypes)
There is "fuzziness" in what category in which a speech sound belongs

Acoustic Landmarks and Distinctive Features
Stevens, K. N. (2002). Toward a model for lexical
access based on acoustic landmarks and
distinctive features. The Journal of the
Acoustical Society of America, 111(4), 1872-1891.
Listeners look for incoming singal for landmarks which carry info about gestures used to produce them
B/c listeners are sensitive to auditory correlates of stimuli, no lack of invariance problem
Landmark acoustic properties are the foundation for establishing distinctive features
Exemplar Theory of Speech Perception
Listeners store info for word- and talker-recognition
Words leave a trace in one's memory (enabled by plasticity of brain)
With new words, memory traces are activated in proportion to similarity to stimulus (conscious experience with activation of stored traces)
Brain doesn't have the capacity/need to store every utterance ever heard and articulatory gestures made by every talker ever listened to TRACE Model of Speech Perception
McClelland, J. L. & Elman, J. L. (1986). The TRACE model of
speech perception. Cognitive Psychology, 18(1), 1-86.
Made of large number of units organized in 3 distinct levels: feature, phoneme, and words.
Classifies words by examining patterns by comparison to "stored distribution of memories"
Many words can be activated at the same time, but word that's identified is the one that's most activated/probable
Full transcript