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The use of nanotechnology in construction and architecture,

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Fòúäd Mägðý

on 31 March 2015

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Transcript of The use of nanotechnology in construction and architecture,

Nanotechnology ("nanotech") is the manipulation of matter on an atomic, molecular, and supramolecular scale
Scientists currently debate the future implications of nanotechnology. Nanotechnology may be able to create many new materials and devices with a vast range of applications, such as in medicine, electronics, biomaterials energy production, and consumer products. On the other hand, nanotechnology raises many of the same issues as any new technology, including concerns about the toxicity and environmental impact of nanomaterials, and their potential effects on global economics.
1. Introduction
The use of nanotechnology in construction and architecture, and improve the properties of building materials
Nanotechnology is more than just mixing nanoscale materials together; it requires the ability to understand and to precisely manipulate and control those materials in a useful way.
Nanotechnology involves a new and broad science where diverse fields such as physics, chemistry, biology, materials science, and engineering converge at the nanoscale.

Working at the nanoscale requires an understanding of the various types and dimensions of nanoscale materials. Different types of nanomaterials are named for their individual shapes and dimensions. Think of these simply as particles, tubes, wires, films, flakes, or shells that have one or more nanometer-sized dimension
Today, research scientists in universities and companies around the world aremanufacturing nanomaterials to make new products and applications, from medical devices and drugs that may treat disease, to strong and lightweight materials that reduce fuel costs for cars and planes and many other materials that have special properties which can be used in verios application like in constructions .

1.2 Working At Nano Scale
The history of nanotechnology, in some sense dates back to prehistoric times when early humans/hominoids made use of naturally-occurring, nanoscale elements. Depicted in the header above, nano-sized carbon molecules integrate nicely with the more porous rock surface of the cave walls to remain embedded for thousands of years.
In classic Japanese literature- The Pillow Book by Sei Shonagon, court lady to an Empress in the 10th Century, small things are to be regarded as beautiful
Contemporary: Richard Feynman
theoretical physicist Richard Feynman asked a couple of questions: “Why cannot we write the entire 24 volumes of the Encyclopedia Britannica on the head of a pin?” He also asked, “I put this out as a challenge: Is there no way to make the electron microscope more powerful?”
Actually, Feynman upped the ante on his on the head of pin question by asking why we simply couldn’t store every book ever written in the same amount of space.
1974 Tokyo Science University professor Norio Taniguchi coined the term nanotechnology. So nano was well on its way already in competing with micro
1977… Drexler originates molecular nanotechnology concepts at MIT
1991…Japan''s MITI announces bottom-up "atom factory" Carbon nanotube discovered
1993…First Feynman Prize in Nanotechnology awarded for modeling a hydrogen abstraction tool useful in nanotechnology
1996...NASA begins work in computational nanotech

1.3 History of Nanotechnology & scientists
1997…First design of nanorobotic system for work in computational nanotechnology and using scanning probe microscopes to manipulate molecules
1999… First Nanomedicine book published First safety guidelines
2000…Feynman Prize in Nanotechnology awarded for computational materials science for nanostructures and for building a molecular switch
2008…Feynman Prize in Nanotechnology awarded for work in molecular electronics and the synthesis of molecular motors and nanocars, and for theoretical contributions to nanofabrication and sensing
2009…An improved walking DNA nanorobot
Feynman Prize in Nanotechnology awarded for experimental demonstrations of mechanosynthesis using AFM to manipulate single atoms, and for computational analysis of molecular tools to build complex molecular structures
2011…First programmable nanowire circuits for nanoprocessors
The laws of Quantum mechanics, chemistry and physics would come into question. New kinds of forces, effects and processes would be discovered, altering outcomes, if not the very paradigm in which scientists interpreted the world

Because the size of the particles is a critical factor, the material
properties significant differ at the nanoscale from that at larger scales some properties begin to vanish in the nano scale .nanoscale, the macro-properties are affected and new materials and processes
can be developed.
Some nano materials are used in constructions like :-

2.1. The Carbon Nanotubes

2.2. Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles (TiO2)

2. Nanotechnology in construction
3.7. Nanotechnologies for Fire Protection
Fire resistance of steel structures is often provided by a coating
produced by a spray-on cementitious process.
Fire resistance of steel structures is often provided by a coating
produced by a spray-on cementitious process.

3.8. Nanotechnologies for Structural Monitoring
Nano- and microelectrical mechanical systems (MEMS) sensors have
been developed and used in construction to monitor and/or control the
environment condition and the materials/structure performance. Nanosensor
ranges from 10–9 to 10–5 m. These sensors could be
embedded into the structure
4.6-Temperature regulation: Phase change materials (PCMs): [2]
-Passive temperature regulation
-Reduced heating and cooling demand

-Highly efficient fire protection.
-Light and transparent
Nanotechnology in Architecture
4.1-Lotus-Effect and its relation with self cleaning process
-Microscopically rough, not smooth.
-Hydrophobic – water trickles off

4.2-Easy-to-clean (ETC):
-Smooth surfaces with reduced surface attraction.
-Surface repellence without using the Lotus-Effect

- Pollutants and odors are broken down into their constituent parts.
-Does not replace ventilation, but improves air quality

-Clarity for steamed-up surfaces

4.5-Thermal insulation: Vacuum insulation panels (VIPs)
-Maximum thermal insulation.
-Minimum insulation thickness
-Permeable surfaces with permanent anti-graffiti coating.
-Highly hydrophobic and dirt-resistant

-Bactria are targeted and destroyed.
-The use of disinfectants can be reduced.
-Supports hygiene methods
– especially in health care environments

-No more visible fingerprints

1) Because of their small particle size, nano particles have the potential to negatively affect the respiratory and digestive tracks and the skin or eye surface thus exposes workers to hazards.
2) Small production volumes and high cost remain the main barriers to the use of nanotechnology
3) The time for commercializing a product is long. which can eliminate the need for reinforcing bars, is projected to be commercialized by approximately 2020.
Nano pollutants are nanoparticles small enough to enter your lungs or be absorbed by your skin. The highest risk is to the workers in nano-technology research and manufacturing processes , nanotechnology may also possess risks for either humans or the environment
Research is needed to determine whether exposure to manufactured nanomaterials can lead to adverse effects to the heart, lungs, skin; alter reproductive performance; or contribute to cancer.

Some of other risk of nanotechnology
1- Identify and characterize the physical and chemical properties of manufactured nanomaterials
2- Identify alternative testing methods and approaches to predict toxicity in humans which includes identification of biomarkers of nanomaterial exposure and toxicity
3- Assess the toxicity of nanomaterials in animals. These studies will include research to identify host susceptibility and sensitivity facts that may influence toxicity.
Previous research on particles has shown that not all individuals respond in the same way or to the same degree. Individual and population susceptibility factors can influence the magnitude of toxicity, deposition, fate, and persistence of nanomaterials.

How to assessing the potential toxicity of nanomaterials
Nanomaterials may enter the body by routes not typically found with other chemicals because of their small size , If nanomaterials of certain sizes are able to enter the body, they may pass through cell membranes or cross the blood-brain barrier because of their small size.
Nanomaterials may interact with environmental media and pollutants to produce by-products that may have the potential to cause health effects.
Nanotechnology based construction products might be harmful to health. For example, the nanotubes might cause a lung problem to construction workers.
materials used in the construction and maintenance of these facilities need to be compatible to the natural environment and their effects on the natural environment should not be negative. Typical potential problems in this
regard include leaching of materials into groundwater, release of materials into airways through the generation of dust and exposure to potentially harmful materials during construction and maintenance operations.
It’s hard to imagine just how small nanotechnology is. One nanometer is a billionth of a meter
Today's scientists and engineers are finding a wide variety of ways to deliberately make materials at the nanoscale to take advantage of their enhanced properties such as higher strength, lighter weight, increased control of light spectrum, and greater chemical reactivity than their larger-scale counterparts.

Nano sensors :
3.5. Nanotechnologies for Coatings and Paitings
Nanotechnology is applied to paints in order to assure the corrosion
protection under insulation since it is hydrophobic and repels water from the
metal pipe and can also protect metal from salt water attack

3.6. Nanotechnologies for Thermal Insulation
Micro- and nanoporous aerogel materials are appropiate for being core materials of vacuum insulation panels but they are sensitive
to moisture

3.3. Nanotechnologies for Wood
Wood is composed of nanotubes or “nanofibrils”. Lignocellulosic
surfaces at the nanoscale could open new opportunities for such things as selfsterilizing

3.4. Nanotechnologies for Glass
The use of TiO2 nanoparticles to glasses leads to so-called self cleaning technology.
Case study:
Twenty-six batches of concrete with various amounts and types of SCMs , were prepared in the laboratory, and specimens were cast for tests.

3. Nanotechnologies for Construction
Nano tech can generate new properties for the matter like being lighter ,stronger and lower in maintenance coating. , better cementitious
materials, lower thermal transfer rate of fire retardant and insulation, better
sound absorption of acoustic absorbers and better
reflectivity of glass.
3.1. Nanotechnologies for Concrete
Concrete is a macro-material strongly influenced by its nano-properties.
The addition of nano-silica (SiO2) to cement based materials can control the
degradation of the calcium-silicatehydrate reaction caused by calcium leaching
in water, blocking water penetration and leading to improvements in durability
3.2. Nanotechnologies for Steel
The addition of copper nanoparticles reduces the surface unevenness of
steel which then limits the number of stress risers and hence fatigue cracking,
leading to increased safety, less need for monitoring and more efficient
materials use in construction subjected to fatigue issues (Mann, 2006).

2.6. Aluminum Oxide Nanoparticles (Al2O3)
2.5. Silver Nanoparticles (Ag)
2.4. Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles (ZnO)
2.7. Zirconium Oxide Nanoparticles (ZrO2)

2.8. Wolfram (Tungsten) Oxide Nanoparticles (WO3)

2.3. Silicon Dioxide Nanoparticles (SiO2)
1- ayman ebrahem elsawy
2- fouad magdy fouad
3- mohamed hassan rizk
4- ahmed samir ahmed
5- abdallah emad abd elsatar
6- hassan abd elsalam
7- abd elrahman awadallah
8- ahmed magdy elbanhawy

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