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zulay hernandez

on 27 April 2010

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How to hunt down the meaning of a word
by using the clues around it. TEN STEPS to IMPROVING COLLEGE READING SKILLS Context Clues Examples: Some animals have remarkable LONGEVITY. For example, the giant land tortoise can live several hundred years.

The presidential candidate vowed to discuss PRAGMATIC solutions. He said the American people want practical answers, not empty theory.

Although investments in the stock market can be LUCRATIVE, they canalso result in a great financial loss.

The public knows very little about the COVERT activities of CIA spies.

(longevity means lenght of life) (pragmatic means practical.) (lucrative means financially rewarding.) (covert means secret). Examples Synonyms Antonyms General Sense MAIN IDEAS the central thought of a passage
what is the passage about. Example: Recognizing the Main Idea look for
general vs. specific ideas read the topic sentence use key words Maria is watching too much television. A toddler shouldn’t be
spending hours staring blankly at a screen. Worse yet, some of her
wild behavior has been inspired by those awful cartoons she
watches. We need to spend more time reading books with her and
pull the plug on the TV! (the main idea is: Watching a lot of television isn’t good for Maria.) SUPPORTING
DETAILS are reasons, examples, facts, steps, or other
kinds of evidence that explain a main idea. major details minor details Outlining Mapping Summarizing IMPLIED MAIN IDEAS Is not stated in the paragraph or passage.
It is inferred by the various details therein. Implied main
idea signals include title, topic, subtopics, details. (1) Many people think there is no difference between an alligator and a crocodile. (2) However, the alligator’s snout is shorter and broader than that of a crocodile. (3) A more dramatic difference between the two creatures lies in how dangerous they are to humans. (4) There are very few documented instances in which alligators have killed a person. (5) On the other hand, crocodiles, particularly those along the Nile River, are quite dangerous to humans. (6) It is said, in fact, that as far as killing people is concerned, crocodiles are second only to poisonous snakes.
Examples Implied Main Idea:There are clear differences
between alligators and crocodiles. RELATIOSHIPS 1 PATTERNS OF ORGANIZATION show the relationship between supporting details
in paragraphs, essays, and chapters. The List of items
pattern The Time order
pattern reasons or examples
with any order series of events or
pattern Comparison and
Contrast pattern Cause and Effect
pattern (gives definitions
and examples) (shows how two things
are different or alike) (explain the reason why something happened or the result of something happening. ) ExAmPles the process of digestion can be divided into four stages.

A federal form of government has advantages and disadvantages.

A mission statement is an organization's declaration of how it will achieve its purpose.

First-year college students who expect to do well in school need to learn quickly
the right and wrong ways of preparing for exams.

Because of economic pressures, increasing nunmbers of people are seeking are seeking
housing assistance. (Time Order) (List of items) (Definition and Example) (Comparison and contrast) (Cause and Effect) INFERENCES Drawing Conclusions RELATIONSHIPS I & II we can infer that the couple is not
likely to have a good dining experience at
the restaurant. PURPOSE AND TONE To Inform Purpose To persuade To entertain Tone author's reason for writing it reveals the attitude that he or she
has toward a subject. tones or feelings: angry, sympathy, hopefulness, sadness
respect, dislike, and so on... "You Idiot! If you hadn't stopped short, I would never have hit you. You should be tossed in jail. You could have gotten us both killed" tone = AnGrY ARGUMENT A good argument is one in which you make a point and then provide persuasive and logical evidence to back it up. To critically read an argument you must recognize the point the author is making. Point : You should see a doctor

Argument: You have constant headaches and blurred vision. Example: Critical Reading Separating fact from opinion Detecting propaganda Recognizing error in reasoning Vs. Fact and Opinion Opinion: is a belief, judgement or conclusion that cannot be objectively proved true. Fact: is information that can be proved true thriugh objective evidence. Albert Einstein willed his violin to his grandson Einstein should have willed his violin to a museum. Detecting Propaganda Bandwagon "everybody else is doing it" Testimonial famous people are pictured in print
ads or TV. Propaganda uses emotional appeals instead of presenting solid evidence to support a point Plain folks Ordinary people are pictured in print
ads or TV Transfer products or candidates try to associate themselves with something that people admire or love. Name calling to use negative comments to turn people
against a rival product. GlitteringGeneralities is an important-sounding but unspecific claim. It cannot be proved true or false because it
really says little or nothing. Recognizing Errors in Reason common fallacies: Circular Reasoning Personal Attack Straw Man a statement repeat irself than providing a real supporting reason to back up an argument. Attack is made on a person’s character or circumstances rather than his or her argument. an argument is made by claiming an opponent holds an extreme position and then opposing that extreme position. False Cause False Comparison Either-or the argument assumes that the order of events alone shows cause and effect. the argument assumes that two things being compared are more alike than they really are. the argument assumes thar there are only two sides to a question. VOCABULARY IN CONTEXT
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