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Fall 2014 African Politics

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Jennifer Boylan

on 24 July 2015

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Transcript of Fall 2014 African Politics

Map Repository
09/08 - 09/12
11/03 - 11/14
08/25 - 09/05
Pre-Colonial Empires & Societies
Africa in MAPS
source: http://geocurrents.info/cultural-geography/religious-complexity-in-ivory-coast
source: http://geocurrents.info/geopolitics/southern-africa%E2%80%99s-support-for-muammar-gaddafi
free = green; partly free = yellow; not free = purple
source: http://www.freedomhouse.org/sites/default/files/MapofFreedom2014.pdf
Some errors: It doesn’t mention the earlier German colonization of Rwanda, Burundi, Cameroon, Togo, Benin and Tanzania, and wrongly lists Namibia as gaining independence from Germany in 1990. Namibian colonial rule was transferred from Germany to South Africa in 1919, and the country became independent from South Africa in 1990. The map also suggests that Liberia was never colonized, which isn’t true – the modern state was founded by the American Colonization Society as a refuge for former slaves.
source: http://rachelstrohm.com/category/1-topics/maps/
source: http://www.informationisbeautiful.net/2010/the-true-size-of-africa/
by Jennifer C Boylan
Cecil Rhodes
source: http://coursesite.uhcl.edu/HSH/Whitec/xhist/SouthAfrica.htm
Politics in Western society- the activities of individuals insofar as they impinge on the public realm made up of the collective interests of the citizenry (91)
public morality versus private morality
private & primordial public (in Africa)- share same morality
civic public- amoral, associated with colonial rule and popular politics in post-colonial Africa
Ekeh 1975
Politics in Africa- one is morally obligated to benefit and sustain your own primordial public
in return, one receives immaterial benefits such as identity and security from the stresses of the modern world
Africans utilize the economic and amoral civic public, to which citizens have no moral obligation, and deliver resources back to the primordial public
Colonial officials/african bourgeoisie divide :: civic/primordial public dichotomy
is the confrontation between the civic and primordial public...
Ekeh cont'd
Boer Wars:
Mamdani's Bifurcated State
civil power vs. customary power
-colonial state enforcement
urban power vs. rural power
-post-colonial, African bourgeosie, enforcement
"Institutionally, civic power was organized along the principle of differentiation, the customary on the basis of the fusion of power. Ideologically, civic power claimed to defend rights, and customary power to enforce custom. Economically, civic power regulated market transactions and ensured the reproduction of market relations, and customary power was located at the interstices of the market and nonmarket relations, mediating the link through extra-economic coercion." (pg. 60)
In reality, Africa is about 14 times larger than Greenland..

source: http://mentalfloss.com/article/19364/3-controversial-maps
Classic Political Sociologists: Mann, Durkheim, Weber, Gramsci, Bourdieu, etc.
-these texts are primarily concerned with the justification of power.
-How is the state justified in ruling, what mechanisms are employed to make the state 'work' and to fit populations within that system?
-An example: Durkheim argues that states and economic systems imposed division of labor on polities and took steps to convince that it was natural. The effect: the creation of individual self-interest, crucial for capitalism

To some extent, Mamdani's Citizen and Subject takes from politico-sociological views of the state and applies it to colonialism and S. Africa's apartheid regime
Mamdani Chap 3
Strategies of Colonial Rule (+ Economics)
-Major Factors
(1)Expense of Colonies
(2)Extraction of Resources From Colonies
(3)Strength of Individual Africans

How these factors manifested:
(1) Expense of Colonies
-employment of Africans

(2) Extraction of Resources
-farms versus mines (in S. Africa, but also Zimbabwe, Zambia, Botswana, Namibia...)

(3) Strength of Individual Africans
-throwing educated class out of civil service
-later inviting educated class back into civil service
-restrictions on polygamy and bridewealth

About 95 million of Africa’s 220 million hectares (ha) of farmland are losing at least 30 kilograms (kg) of nutrients per ha yearly — food for crops that is not replaced. African farmers have traditionally cleared land, grown a few crops and then moved on to clear more land. This practice left the soil fallow, allowing it to regain its fertility. But constant population growth now forces farmers to continually plant crops on the same land, “mining” the soil while giving no nutrients back. Nutrient mining affects more than 75 percent of the continent’s farmland, which loses soil nutrients worth an estimated $4 billion every year.
source: http://www.africafertilizer.org/About-Us/Who-we-are/Soil-Health-Nutrient-Mining-in-Africa.aspx
source: http://www.whydev.org/how-transparent-is-that/artoff3939-2/
-"Thus was established the social prerequisite of a single legal order in a colonial settler society: appropriation of land, destruction of communal autonomy, and establishment of the 'freedom' of the individual to become a wage worker. Also, the single legal order was confined to matters of personal law; in the public realm, natives were ruled by proclamation and magistrates held absolute power. This was direct rule" (66)

-Breaking up tribes -> Abolishing Chiefs

-"But political wisdom alone could not fully explain the shift from direct to indirect rule.. For whereas white farmers called for the breaking up of tribes to release labor that could be absorbed and controlled on settler farms, the mines required the retention of tribal reserves from which labor would be released when required and to which it could be returned when not needed" (68)
-pass laws
-"whereas the pass system was for settler farms a way of tying family labor to employer, for the mines it was a way of preventing the permanent settlement of African families on their property by maintaining worker ties with the reserves" (69)
The Overall Method? Race vs. Tribalism
-Race vs. Tribalism
-tribal groups used to split up anti-colonial opposition
-classic defense logic ("divide and conquer")

later, when African civil servants were brought back into the system, rural authorities were subverted under urban middle class authority
-precursor to full blown urban/rural divide in post-independence period..
Mamdani & Civil Society
(1) What is Civil Society?

(2) Why is it important for democracy?
Civil Society:
"that arena of the polity where self-organizing groups, movements, and individuals, relatively autonomous from the state, attempt to articulate values, create associations and solidarities, and advance their interest" (Linz & Stepan 1996, 7).
Why It's Important:
citizens relating with one another; creation of communities
De Tocqueville: America is a 'nation of joiners'
political engagement
De Tocqueville: creation of a 'municipal spirit'
ready-to-use forms of resistance against unjust acts committed by the state
Civil Society in Eastern Europe
Communism in Eastern Europe:
"the communist institutional system transformed societies across Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union because (1) the institutions were designed and enforced authoritatively, (2) the institutions build on and reinforced the pre-communist, non-democratic traditions that already existed in many societies, and (3) the communist system lasted for several generations from 40 years in Eastern Europe to over 70 years in the Soviet Union" (Marc Howard, 2003,
The Weakness of Civil Society in Post-Communist Europe
, pg. 25).
Communist government directly interfered and regulated civil society. Individuals were mandated to participate in civil society (ex: mandatory voting). Mandatory mobilization had radically different effects on populations in comparison to the free associations De Tocqueville had so admired in America.
Linz & Stepan (1996) on Civil Society
- civil society is important for democracy because:
(1) the interests and values of civil society are the major generators of political society
(2) civil society generates ideas and helps monitor the state apparatus and economic society

-'post-totalitarian' states will have a hard time democratizing partially because civil society organizations were repressed or eliminated under the prior regime
Linz, Juan J. and Alfred Stepan. 1996.
Problems of Democratic Transition and Consolidation
. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.
Civil Society in Africa - Mamdani's P.O.V
-the French Revolution marked the politicization of civil society (15)

-"coming to grips with the specific nature of power through which the population of subjects excluded from civil society was actually ruled" (15)

-"The hallmark of the modern state was civil law through which it governed citizens in civil society" (109)

(1) What civil society organizations does he highlight?

(2) Why and how was civil society eliminated?
Later in Mamdani...
-peasant usage of ethnicity as, not only an artifact of colonial rule, but also as a form of anticolonial and anticentralized state revolt (184-185)
-ethnic organizations are now the sites of civil society
-ex: hometown associations

-Ironically, however, these sites of revolt are now picked up by elites and other political actors to support their own political usages. Thus, the entrance of politicized ethnicity into the political sphere of post-colonial African states is really a misusage of its revolutionary intent. As Mamdani prophesizes, “A successful political reform of the bifurcated state needs to be simultaneously rural and urban, local and central” (213).

source: http://cherokeegothic.com/2014/02/05/more-map-fun-african-edition/
Colonial Period
source: http://timerime.com/en/timeline/906582/Scramble+For+Africa/
Portuguese explorer Prince Henry the Navigator methodologically explored Africa
Early 1500’s
- first ships take African Slaves to South America and the Americas
- slave trade reaches its peak
- British outlaws the British Atlantic slave trade
- US joins in
Other countries join in
- slavery abolished in the US
- slavery abolished in Brazil
Scramble for Africa:
Conference of Berlin
"effective occupation" established
source: http://bcsafrica.blogspot.com/2013/01/the-scramble-for-africa.html
source: http://www.forbes.com/sites/timreuter/2013/11/27/there-is-no-second-scramble-for-africa-2/
German East Africa (Tanzania), Togoland, Kamerun (Cameroon), German Southwest Africa (Namibia)
Belgium Congo
Angola, Mozambique
Libya, Italian East Africa (Somaliland, Eritrea, Ethiopia(-ish!))
Benin, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Comoros, DRC, Republic of the Congo, Cote d'Ivoire, Djibouti, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Guinea, Madagascar, Mali, Niger, Senegal, Seychelles, and Togo
Equatorial Guinea, Gambia, Sierra Leone, Liberia, Ghana, Nigeria, Cameroon, Seychelles, Ethiopia, Eritrea, South Sudan, Uganda, Kenya, Tanzania, Zambia, Malawi, Zimbabwe, Namibia, Botswana, Swaziland, Lesotho, South Africa
Spanish Sahara (Western Sahara), Spanish Guinea (Equatorial Guinea)
European Colonies
Major Colonial Players:
Belgium, Germany, France, England, Portugal, Spain, Italy
World War I: 1914-1916
winners: France, England, Italy
losers: Germany
neutral: Belgium, Spain, Portugal
World War II: 1940-1945
winners: France, England
losers: Germany, Italy
neutral: Spain, Portugal, Belgium
other factors
Portugal- October 5, 1910 revolution that ended the kingdom and initiated Portugal's first republic
Spain- first republic of spain (1873-1874), kingdom of spain (1874-1931), second Spanish republic (1931- 1939), Franco-ist Spain (1936-1975)
1900's: Europe in Africa
Simran Khosla
Civil Society Groups in Africa (?)
-democracy think tanks
-religious groups/organizations
-trade unions
-hometown associations
-festival planning committees
-secret societies

source: http://www.globalpost.com/dispatch/news/health/140904/map-youth-elderly-world-political-unrest-economy-unemployment
source: http://www.globalpost.com/dispatch/news/health/140904/map-youth-elderly-world-political-unrest-economy-unemployment
For "Saa okodie no" lyric meanings, see, for instance:


- What are 'Big Man' Politics vis-a-vis neopatrimonialism?

- Patrimonialism versus Neopatrimonialism?

- Corporatism?
Weber- Patriarchalism and Patrimonialism (Chapter 12 of Economy and Society)
-a pre-bureaucratic type of domination
-based on loyalty and fidelity; is a dependency relationship
-in a patrimonial state, the most fundamental obligation of the subjects is the material maintenance of the ruler
-eventually develops into a rational bureaucratic administration, which resorts to systematic taxation
-'traditional' aspect to the ruler's power
-recruitment to office based on loyalty and those who are personally dependent on the ruler

-the patrimonial office lacks the bureaucratic separation of the 'private' and the 'official' sphere
-is a post-Weberian invention; a mix of two Weberian types of domination:
-traditional patrimonial domination
-legal-rational bureaucratic domination
Patrimonialism: “all power relations between ruler and ruled, political as well as administrative relations, are personal relations; there is no differentiation between the private and the public realm” (105)
Neopatrimonialism: there is a distinction between private and the public, at least formally
“Formal structures and rules do exist, although in practice the separation of the private and public sphere is not always observed” (105)
Erdman and Engel (2007)
-the formal governing coalitions between organized state and social interests or the collective bargaining over core public policies
-related to organized class interests

-corporatist institutions predominated in Southern Europe and Latin America's bureaucratic authoritarian regimes
-major reason why democratic pacts occurred in transitions in these regions..
Bratton and van de Walle (1994)
-political institutions; downplays roles of political actors
-somewhat path dependent
• Neopatrimonialism:
“the chief executive maintains authority through personal patronage, rather than through ideology or law. As with classic patrimonialism, the right to rule is ascribed to a person rather than an office. In contemporary neopatrimonialism, relationships of loyalty and dependence pervade a formal political and administrative system and leaders occupy bureaucratic offices less to perform public service than to acquire personal wealth and status. The distinction between private and public interests is purposely blurred. The essence of neopatrimonialism is the award by public officials of personal favors, both within the state (notably public sector jobs) and in society (for instance, licenses, contracts, and projects). In return for material rewards, clients mobilize political support and refer all decisions upward as a mark of deference to patrons” (458)

Path of the Article
1) shows us how the literature emphasizes political actors and underestimates impact of prior formal institutions

2) defines neopatrimonialism as a regime type

3) how features of neopatrimonialism are likely to mold regime outcomes different from transitions from other types of rule

4) distinguishes variants of the neopatrimonial regime
Neopatrimonial Regime Paths: In general
(1) Political transitions originate from social protest
-partially b/c neopatrimonialism causes chronic fiscal crisis and poor economic growth

(2) Neopatrimonial elites fracture over access to patronage and not ideology..
(3) Elite political pacts unlikely in Africa
(4) in neopatrimonial regimes, political transitions are struggles to establish legal rules
(5) middle-class elements align with the opposition
-i.e. their interests are not protected by the state..
source: World Economic Forum; https://twitter.com/Wef/status/511212816309972993/photo/1
source: http://imgur.com/gallery/e2nkQOr
West Wing episode:
09/15 - 09/24
Last Week Cleanup
1) the creation of culture

2) Our civil society groups list- all are not equal

3) why is neopatrimonialism associated with fiscal crisis?
source: http://www.globalpost.com/dispatch/news/health/140904/map-youth-elderly-world-political-unrest-economy-unemployment
• “Tsoang Tsoang” tells the story of a young man of modest means who couldn’t afford the dowry for his bride Naledi. With help from his friends, he is able to afford the dowry, and the couple join in the singing and dancing in the streets in anticipation of a happy life together
Song Lyrics
Wantchekon 2003
“Clientelism is defined as transactions between politicians and citizens whereby material favors are offered in return for political support at the polls” (400)
“The common conclusion is that clientelist politics is most attractive in conditions of low productivity, high inequality, and starkly hierarchical social relations” (400)
“clientelism generates excessive redistribution at the expense of the provision of public goods, as politicians wastefully divert government resources to favored segments of the electorate” (401)
“clientelism tends to favor those already in control of the government and therefore consolidates incumbency advantage in democratic elections” (401)
Wantchekon 2003 (cont'd)
- Wantchekon induces the two political parties to allow him to use a matched pairs experimental design
- politicians use ethnic/clientelist appeals in one village and public goods appeals/promises in the other village, a process repeated across 8 different constituencies
- then individuals were surveyed after the 2001 elections about their voting behavior
-the 'public policy treatement' was significant in the south, but not the north
-interestingly, the public policy treatment was more significant for women than for men...
Baldwin 2013
(1) Overall Point / Object of Study:
elections: individual's voting rationales
relationship between elected politicians and chiefs (i.e. patrons)
(2) Argument:
voting with the chief is strategic
working relationship w/chief and politician affects development
(3) Other Major Arguments:
fear of consquences for not voting w/chief (votes not secret)
coercion to get votes (guilt-tripping)
Lindberg (2006)
(1) Objective of Study:
-relationship between elections and democratization

(2) Author's Argument:

Independent Variable (x): Elections

Dependent Variables (y): participation, competition, and legitimacy

y = ax + b
Independent Variable (x): Elections

Dependent Variables (y): participation, competition, and legitimacy


-In other words, why do elections lead to participation, competition and legitimacy?

-Why do elections lead to increased democratization?
-Elections foster liberalization and have a self-reinforcing power that promotes increased democracy

-Elections cause deepened civil liberties; are a casual mechanism in democratization

-Elections forge new behaviorial patterns among dominant political actors and the masses in Africa (5)

Political Regimes
-the rules of the game

-“a set of rules that determine the distribution of political power”

-these rules are implemented through institutions

-Lindberg's most important institution?
Important Questions
1) Are all elections equally good? What does Lindberg say? What is your opinion?
-turnover of power(?)

2) What are the aid implications of Lindberg's argument? Do you agree?
source: World Economic Forum, http://forumblog.org/2014/01/interview-nest-and-the-thermostat-that-watches-you/?utm_content=buffer96a82&utm_medium=social&utm_source=twitter.com&utm_campaign=buffer
van de
source: http://www.bbc.com/news/world-africa-29209741
UNAIDS Map: http://www.unaids.org/en/dataanalysis/datatools/aidsinfo/
Arriola, Leonardo R. 2013. Multiethnic Coalitions in Africa: Business Financing of Opposition Election Campaigns.
-Arriola is interested in democratization, to be sure, but he is looking beyond democratic transitions...

-how are democracy's most desirable attributes generated?

-Electoral Competition can bring out the best of democratic regimes...
-but some argue that when politicians/parties become mere ethnic markers, and elections become "violent confrontations over control of the state" (1), democracy fails
-as for Arriola, the author isn't so concerned about violent confrontations between ethnic groups at election time
-What is Arriola most concerned about?
-political competition
-if leaders don't fear losing elections, incumbents do not have much incentive to be responsive, to craft better policies, or to respect institutional contraints

-Why? (2 big reasons- 1 theoretical, 1 specific to SSA)

Q: Why is this a problem?

A: A fragmented opposition is easy to defeat
- 'divide and conquer'

Arriola even seems to suggest that a large part of SSA's democratic deficiencies are due to a lack of meaningful political competition
Overall Research Question: Why have some oppositions in Africa been able to unite, while others are divided and remain fractured?

-“The existing literature offers no convincing explanation for why electoral opposition becomes institutionalized more slowly in some countries than others or for whether the erratic nature of opposition in some countries will stabilize over time” (8)

Main argument: that opposition politicians are more likely to pursue a pecuniary coalition-building strategy where the state’s capacity to act as a gatekeeper for capital has been eroded by liberalizing financial reforms (3-4)

-Now in lay(wo)man's terms, this mean's what?
What about the government? Why have they developed such a broad-base of support?

- “Patronage has allowed entrenched incumbents to divide their opponents through selective incentives, enticing politicians to strike out on their own with the intention of later being invited into the incumbent’s government. This strategy may work: I find that between 1990 and 2005, at least one in three African executives has appointed a member of the opposition to the ministerial cabinet within the six months following an election” (12)
The oppositional escape route:

(1) Opposition leaders can tap private resources of the business sector where liberal reforms permit entrepreneurs to defect from the regime without punishment (19)

(2) SSA countries are ethnically divided and have a patronage-based political system
-Coalition building is necessarily a resource-intensive electoral strategy in polities where the relationship between politicians and voters is structured through clientelistic linkages (Chandra 2004b; Kitschelt and Wilkinson 2007)” (19)
The oppositional escape route (cont'd)
-“Since most politicians lack a constituency large enough to propel them to national power, those who seek to become competitive must purchase the endorsements of politicians from other ethnic groups” (19)
-But the deal might be broken once the politician is in office. This problem can be sidestepped if the coalition leaders are paid upfront
-For the non-incumbents, only wealthy businessmen have this option

-it is NOT the nature of ethnic cleavages or political institutions that determine competitiveness...
it is the asymmetry in the access to resources between the opposition and incumbent.

elephants ivory map: http://newswatch.nationalgeographic.com/2013/01/31/time-running-out-to-save-elephants-from-ivory-trade/
(1) State Department Internships

(2) Boren Scholarships

(3) Paper Drafts due this Friday

(4) Ribab Fusion
Cheeseman 2011
What is the dependent/outcome variable (y)?
hint: remember y = mx + b
In other words, what is being explained?
Cheeseman 2011
-creation of an inclusive government in which executive power is typically shared

-how about in America?
Cheeseman 2011
(1) In what situations are power-sharing argeements necessary?

(2) Do power-sharing agreements usually last?
-NO! Well, sometimes..

(3) What types of governments do power-sharing agreements produce?
-UNITY governments
Cheeseman 2011
What are Cheeseman's two explanatory (independent) variables?
-hint: the 'x' in y=mx+b
Two Explanatory Variables
(1) The Distribution of Violence
-whether violence was committed by one side against an other(s) or whether violence was widespread..

(2) Level of Elite Cohesion
-the degree to which political elites can come together to make agreements
Lijphart's Consociational Democracy
-According to Cheeseman, highly inclusive and permanent power-sharing settlements fall into this

-a democratic system in which ethnic diversity is managed by building measures that protect the interests of each community into the foundations of the political system

-what does this look like in practice?
-what is the concern with consociational democracy?

source: http://needlessbloodshed.wordpress.com/category/uncategorized/
Colonial History of Rwanda
Germany took control of Rwanda and Burundi in 1890
after WWI loss, Rwanda was governed by Belgium (via the UN): 1922-1961
both colonial powers instituted a racial categorization of the citizens
Tutsis were said to have 'fairer' skin, longer noses, and be taller. They also drank more milk (traditional cattle herders).
Hutus were said to have darker complexions, be shorter in height, and have wider noses.
HOWEVER, one's wealth could result in a granting of Tutsi ethnic status...
Twas are generally of shorter statures...
Rwanda's elite was largely comprised of Tutsis, though a sizeable wealthy Hutu minority also existed.
In the pre-colonial era, the Mwami (King) of Rwanda, was generally of Tutsi background, but not always. As an expansionary state, however, it came to be that all
conquered peoples took on the label 'Hutu'. It has been argued that Hutu was a bigger signifier of class rather than ethnicity.
It was this system of wealthy patrons and poor peasants that colonial powers + economics transformed into problematic ethnic categories
Arusha Accords- 1993
Oct 1, 1990- RPF invade Rwanda from Uganda
RPF=Rwandan Patriotic Front
June 10, 1991- new constitution legalizing multi - party politics
ceasefires, broken
ceasefires, negotiations, broken negotiations...

Aug 3-4, 1993- Arusha Accords Signed
Arusha Accords: 5 Pillars
(1) the establishment of the rule of law
(2) power-sharing
-sharing of cabinet posts
(3) repatriation and resettlement of refugees and internally displaced people
(4) the integration of armed forces
-60% original army, 40% RPF (!!!)
(5) miscellaneous provisions
source: http://www2.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/NSAEBB/NSAEBB469/
Genocide Archive Rwanda:
free = green
partly free = yellow
not free = purple

source: http://www.freedomhouse.org/sites/default/files/MapofFreedom2014.pdf
The Hamitic Myth
Noah's sons Ham, Japeth and Shem
Ham son, Canaan, 'cursed with blackness'
several African cultures trace their lineage to Jerusalem...
Cold War and Rwanda?
What did the Cold War mean for African countries?
(1) Slashing of budgets
(2) Pressure for democratization
1) Did it look like the 1994 genocide was predictable? How?

2) Was the 1994 genocide preventable? How?

3) Why wasn't the genocide prevented?
Rwanda Population (in thousands)
FAO DATA- 2005
Life Expectancy at Birth- WHO: http://gamapserver.who.int/gho/interactive_charts/mbd/life_expectancy/atlas.html
source: http://www.indexmundi.com/blog/index.php/2012/09/18/armed-conflicts-in-africa/
source: Armed Conflict
Location and Event Dataset
source: http://www.economist.com/blogs/baobab/2013/11/civil-wars
From the syllabus:
Your task is to write a biographical report in which you research this individual's life and time in power, the struggles they faced and the most important or controversial decisions they made, their relationship with different segments of society within their country as well as international figures, and, finally, their fall from power. The research lenses we utilize should be of use in writing this paper
APA citations
general citations
from theory on bounded rationality (Simon, 1945)
Simon (1945) posited that
multiple authors
as has been shown (Leiter & Maslach, 1998
as Leiter and Maslach (1998) demonstrated
Kahneman, Knetsch, and Thaler (1991) found
Footnotes and Endnotes
APA does not recommend the use of footnotes and endnotes because they are often expensive for publishers to reproduce. However, if explanatory notes still prove necessary to your document, APA details the use of two types of footnotes: content and copyright.
Content Notes provide supplemental information to your readers. When providing Content Notes, be brief and focus on only one subject. Try to limit your comments to one small paragraph.
Reference List: Author/Authors
Single Author
Ku, G. (2008). Learning to de-escalate: The effects of regret in escalation of commitment.
Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes
(2), 221-232.

Two Authors
Sanchez, D., & King-Toler, E. (2007). Addressing disparities consultation and outreach strategies for university settings.
Consulting Psychology Journal: Practice and Research
(4), 286-295.
source: https://www.library.cornell.edu/research/citation/apa
in print:
Frank, R. H., & Bernanke, B. (2007).
Principles of macro-economics
(3rd ed.). Boston, MA: McGraw-Hill/Irwin.
online & corporate author:
Australian Bureau of Statistics. (2000).
Tasmanian year book 2000
(No. 1301.6). Canberra, Australian Capital Territory: Author. Retrieved from http://www.ausstats.abs.gov.au/ausstats/subscriber.nsf/0/CA2568710006989... $File/13016_2000.pdf.
Edited Book
Gibbs, J. T., & Huang, L. N. (Eds.). (2001).
Children of color: Psychological interventions with culturally diverse youth.
San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (2005).
Medicaid drug price comparisons: Average manufacturer price to published prices
(OIG publication No. OEI-05-05- 00240). Washington, DC: Author. Retrieved from http://www.oig.hhs.gov/oei/reports/oei-05-05-00240.pdf.
Government Report, Accessed Online
National Renewable Energy Laboratory. (2008).
. Retrieved May 6, 2008, from http://www.nrel.gov/learning/re_biofuels.html
Undated Website Content
source: http://peterslarson.com/2011/01/19/african-conflict-and-ethnic-distribution/
Three Theories of Ethnicity/Identity
(as applied to Africa)
1) Primordialism

2) Instrumentalist

3) Constructivist
1) Primordialism
- ethnicity is an intrinsic part of who someone is
- ethnic expression (such as through voting) is an expression of identity

2) Instrumentalist
- individuals only identify with identities that offer them the most benefit. People are neither inherently nor emotionally attached to their ethnic identity. If these identities served no function, they would be dropped altogether

3) Constructivist
3) Constructivist
- Constructivism accounts allow for emotional aspects behind ethnicity, despite its constructed nature, as individuals and elites look for ways in which to rationalize the construction. Emotional attachment to the oral histories and cultural aspects of the ethnic identity solidifies its existence.
- but also: the ethnic individual is a rational actor reasonably responding to the situation with which they are faced. Individuals choose to accept the constructed identities because it serves as a safety net and as a way to satisfy individual needs.
source: http://www.africanculturalcenter.org/5_3languages_religion.html
Nationalism Follow-up
Is nationalism a good thing?
why is nationalism important for political stability?
in the West, nation building = nation destroying...
in Africa, no one identity dominates..
Villalon 2010
Senegal, Niger, Mali
Why these cases?
topic: constructing democracies in Muslim nations
1) local interpretation of Islam is important
2) Rather than asking whether democracy can be practiced in a Muslim context, we should ask how the question of democracy is framed, pursued, negotiated, and perhaps modified within given Muslim societies and in specific political contexts
3) In Muslim contexts, therefore, Islam in its multiple dimensions – as a set of texts, a specific historical tradition, structured social institutions, and an ideological formula – becomes a key factor shaping the outcome of debates on democracy, but it does not predetermine that outcome
Do democratic negotiations produce democratic outcomes?
Should dominant cultural values win in a democratic context even if they are illiberal?
crucial example: Code pour la famille pour le Niger
Interesting Themes from Wed Seminar
JFK Hospital
1-2 doctors per 100,000 residents
note WHO recommends 20 per 100,000 as a very important minimum...
seeking treatment in the bush is logical..
absence of surveillance is crucial for ebola's spread
we had money flowing in, yet bad health systems were created..
source: http://www.nytimes.com/2014/09/13/world/africa/us-scientists-see-long-fight-against-ebola.html?smid=tw-share&_r=4
Ellie and ter Haar (2007)
religion as ever-changing
but what IS constant:
there is a connection between an invisible world and a visible world
religious forces inform African realities
the material and immaterial aspects of life are very much related
there is a tendency in scholarly literature to treat indigenous religions as 'less real' or 'cultural artifacts' rather than as comparable to other mainstream religions..
Four Common Aspects of African Religions
1) belief in the existence of a spirit world

2) robust oral culture

3) strong idea of evil as a transcendental force

4) shared colonial experience (broadly defined)
Connection to Colonialism
• “The roots of this conviction that economic and political power has a dangerous spiritual aspect, which Africans can no longer control, can be located in the continent’s history. Ultimately, this perceived lack of control dates from the colonization and evangelization of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, that regarded indigenous spiritual forces as harmful, backward or demonic” (397-398)
Connection to Colonialism
• “One consequence of this history is that many traditional spiritual experts have lost prestige and are often regarded as unable to deal with the evil forces threatening the African continent today. While vast numbers of people continue to consult local healers, the feeling is widespread that they cannot provide effective remedies for the key problems of modern times" (398)
Application to 1994 Rwandan genocide...
• “Ordinary Rwandans were moved to acts of genocide, spurred on by propaganda and fear, because they believed their society to be threatened not only by political and military upheaval, but by malevolent spiritual forces also” (399)

What is the connection between indigenous beliefs and the ebola virus (and health in general...)?
Is seeking treatment from local healers logical?
"How to Ignore a Plague"
Author Umaru Fofana compares Sierra Leonean President Koroma's response to ebola to what political event? Why?
Why is the argument made that the US has a particular responsibility to help Liberia?
1) Institutions

2) Laissez faire economics

3) Economics + Africa
what question is driving Robert Bates' book?

what TWO things do politicians want in developing nations?
1) What is a monopoly?

2) What is a monopsony?
"A monopsony is a single buyer; and where there are many sellers but only one buyer, the buyer can strongly influence the price at which economic transactions will take place” (12)
hint: “Most African states possess publicly sanctioned monopsonies for the purchase and export of agricultural goods." (12)
1) Colonial Govs create marketing boards
Post-colonial govs inherit the state
Politicians want 2 things:
stay in power
Governments need revenue:
for develop-ment
to appease political supporters
gov's get revenue via taxes
No Money
Question: Is this Wrong?
(+) central gov is helping to develop the nation by allocating resources to industry
(-) agricultural producers are providing the means of industrialization and are not getting adequately compensated
(-) resources are not distributed efficiently- instead industrialization process is affected by politics.. (who gets contracts, where factories are built, etc)..

= small amount of resources inefficiently utilized so the nation does not develop strong industries
Political Pressure for Low-Cost Food:
(1) urban workers

(2) employers

all African governments fear urban unrest.

Remember who Bratton and van de Walle credit with pushing for democratic regime change in the 1990's: urban political protestors!
-to encourage cheap food prices, African governments encourage farming via
-mechanical equipment,
-agricultural loans
-irrigation and other costly farm schemes

-But WHO benefits? the poor?
-NOPE. Local elites and political supporters tend to secure these inputs...
The Emerging Industrial Sector
-to promote new industries, African governments protect them foreign competition whose prices are often lower
-similarly, govs restrict local competition as well
-this means local populations are restricted to buying the more expensive locally-produced good

source: http://harvestchoice.org/labs/harvestchoice-creates-worlds-first-sub-national-poverty-maps
Governments use resources from agricultural sectors
Industrialization is not pursued efficiently
Agric producers aren't reimbursed & industrialization doesn't happen
source: http://www.migrationpolicy.org/article/frequently-requested-statistics-immigrants-and-immigration-united-states
Literature Bates is responding to..
“that patterns of change in Third World countries are largely determined by international political and economic forces, and that these forces originate in the industrialized nations” (8)
How is Bates responding to this? Where does he locate the causes of the underdevelopment of African societies?
source: https://cmsdata.iucn.org/downloads/african_elephant_summit_background_document_2013_en.pdf
Gen Notes on Writing Skills
Less commas
Stronger introductory and concluding paragraphs
Less direct quotations - only where
Use direct, active language. We are political scientists and we write about facts and not fluff.
Cite scholarly sources. Use non-scholarly sources as background resources that can inform you as a researcher but should not find their way into in-text citations. Cite at the end as background.
Clauses need to be well-connected. Please read your papers out loud (and slowly) to ensure they are grammatically correct
Africa's Growth Trajectories
1960's = rapid growth, on par with south Asia
1970's = economic deterioration + autocracy and dictatorship
32 countries are poorer in 1999 than in 1980
Four Types of Explanations
1) Domestic-Destiny

2) Domestic-Policy

3) External-Destiny

4) External-Policy

Destiny Policy

-Your task is to:

(1) list the factors that make this sort of argument plausible
-see pages 7-14

(2) specify Collier and Gunning's reaction to these factors
-see pages 14-19
source: http://www.brookings.edu/research/interactives/2014/us-africa-leaders-summit-slideshow
source: http://www.brookings.edu/research/interactives/2014/us-africa-leaders-summit-slideshow
IMF and the World Bank
dubbed the 'Bretton Woods Institutions' after their creation in Bretton Woods, NH in 1944
The World Bank
composed of the:
International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD)
International Development Association (IDA)
the World Bank offers low-interest loans, interest-free credits, and grants to developing countries
The International Monetary Fund (IMF)
objective: to ensure the stability of the international monetary and financial system
-in other words, act to prevent another Great Depression (1920's)
assists members (both developed and developing nations, even the US!) with short to medium term credits (i.e. loans)
members who qualify? those experiencing balance of payments difficulties
(1) What are aid conditionality/structural adjustment programs?
ex: macroeconomy stability (low-budget deficits and inflation), noninterference with market pricing, privatization of state-owned enterprises & openness to international trade

(2) Has aid hurt or help economic growth in Africa? How should aid be reformed? In other works Easterly makes a conservative argument that aid should be stopped until it is reformed- thoughts?
1) Describe the 'Dutch Disease'. (chap 3)

(it's okay if you have questions about this, but what is the general 'paradox' of the argument)
1) Bates -> finds fault w/African govs
-> $ diverted from agriculture to industrialization

2) Collier & Gunning -> emphasizes
Domestic-Policy explanations
-> agriculture heavily taxed
-> severe problems of contract enforcement
-> urban bias
-> high public employment + wide-ranging controls on the private sector
2) Collier & Gunning (cont'd):
-> Domestic-Destiny
-> geographic/demographic dispositions which predispose Africa to slow growth
-> ex: tropical climate, poor soil quality, low pop density, high diversity

-> External-Destiny
-> landlocked countries, few exports w/volatile prices, more aid per capita
-aid per capita: aid reduces incentive for good governance VS. aid is good when policies are good
4) External-Policy
-> African govs adopt exchange rate and trade policies which are anti-export and accumulated large foreign debts

-> highly overvalued exchange rates

-> tariffs and export taxes are high

-> restrictions on imports -> corruption

-> Lack of private investment because of high taxation = high debt from international public loans
1) Bates ->
finds fault with African policies
2) Collier & Gunning ->
emphasizes African policies
Now on to critics of aid:
3) Easterly ->
uses different measures to test Burnside & Dollar (2000) argument that aid was good for economic growth
-> focus on 'effective aid'
-> aid needs to finance investment rather than consumption -> focus on the
-> critical of conditionality
What is conditionality?
-> macroeconomic stability (low-budget deficits and inflation)
-> noninterference with market pricing,
-> privatization of state-owned enterprises
-> openness to international trade
-> otherwise known as 'free trade'
source: Easterly (2003)
Free Trade is Controversial
-the 'dark side' of globalization
-American mega-corporations can enter into developing nations unfettered
-unsafe imports
-environmental destruction
-American values being imposed globally
-conservative Muslim reactions as arguably a response to this
-but now we're getting too deep into IR THEORY!
4) Pitcher (2012)
-> work on privatization of state-owned enterprises (aka parastatals) in South Africa
-> emphasizes negative effects of structural adjustment programme which aid conditionality enforces
structural adjustment means the state has to repress the people or not follow through with structural adjustment
-> privatization failed in SA so now a complicated/inefficient economic system exists: parastatals interacting with an expanded private sector

Collier (2007)- The Bottom Billion
-> group of countries at the bottom which are falling behind
-> Four Development Traps
-> the conflict trap

-> the natural resource trap

-> the trap of being landlocked w/bad neighbors

-> the trap of bad governance in a small country
-> For each MDG (1-8), write down how you, as a development expert, would test for OR measure each of these objectives
-> in other words, what would you expect to see if the MDGoal was achieved?
source: http://www.economist.com/news/middle-east-and-africa/21598646-hopes-africas-dramatic-population-bulge-may-create-prosperity-seem-have
Should developed nations be obligated to give aid to developing nations?
Four Development Traps
-> the conflict trap

-> the natural resource trap

-> the trap of being landlocked w/bad neighbors

-> the trap of bad governance in a small country
Collier (2007)
The Conflict Trap
-> 73% in the bottom billion have recently been through a war or are still in one

3 Causes of Conflict:


3 Causes of Conflict:

1) level of income

2) slow growth or decline

3) dependence upon a primary commodity

Discounted Factors:
-income inequality, ethnic diversity
-geography matters somewhat
-affects rebels ability to hide
What else do we know about the conflict trap?
- most people die from disease rather than in battle

-neighbors are affected
-this is related to the landlocked w/bad neighbors trap

-Collier (2007) estimates costs at $64 billion

-homicide rates skyrockets after the conflict is 'over'
Types of Aid
-> 'budget support'

-> 'technical assistance'

-> project support

-> aid with conditionality
Which type of aid is best?
Concerns with Aid
-> big aid makes coups more likely

-> big aid can make exports uncompetitive
Aid and Dutch Disease
-> aid is imports, as a foreign exchange

-> for aid to be effective, there has to be a high demand for imports
-> if imports are banned or have high tariffs on them, demand will be low and aid will not 'buy' much
-> put differently, aid requires trade liberalization

-> aid depreciates the currency-> INFLATION
Dutch Disease
-> any large flow of foreign currency

-> aid, foreign direct investment, revenue from resource rents
What are resource rents?
-> the difference between production cost amounts and the price the product is sold at
-> WHEN that price is determined on the international market (i.e. by demand)
source: https://seeker401.wordpress.com/2013/02/06/isabel-dos-santos-first-african-female-billionaire-south-african-mining-billionaire-patrice-motsepe-will-give-half-his-familys-fortune-to-charity/comment-page-1/
Dutch Disease
economic revenues

-goods -> tradable sector

-services -> nontradable sector
BOOM! Oil is discovered in your country
-now let's think about your tradable sector as split into a booming sector and non-booming sector (i.e. lagging sector)
-The resource boom demands labor
-workers are needed to support the booming industry
-production shifts from the lagging sector to the booming sector
source: http://www.scielo.org.bo/scielo.php?pid=S2074-47062009000100005&script=sci_arttext
-the booming sector generates revenues
-more money is available in the economy and a 'spending effect' occurs such that there is
an increase in the demand for labor in the non-tradable sectors (i.e. services)
-this also comes at the expense of the lagging tradable sector
-the increased demand for services increases the price of services

-but the prices of the tradable goods are fixed internationally, so their prices cannot change

-as things become more expensive locally relative to international prices -> an increase in the exchange rate
-> Inflation
In addition to inflation's effect on local prices..
-exports become more expensive to the rest of the world
-so the demand for your other exports decreases -> LESS REVENUE

-So essentially the Dutch Disease can be summarized by a
depreciation in the income and employment of the non-oil export industries

Collier's Solution?
- countries need to encourage the demand for imports

-resource revenues increase the supply of imports (as foreign exchange is (often rapidly) entering the economy

-you need to provide a matching demand for imports to avoid depreciating the exchange rate (and thus causing inflation and thus crowding out your other non-oil exporters)
-After going over these Dutch Disease macro-economic technicalities, what does Watts (2004) bring to the table?

-How does Watts understand the natural resource curse?

-What problems does he highlight in Nigeria?

-From Watts' perspective, are Dutch Disease and the natural resource curse the same thing?
source: http://www.theatlantic.com/infocus/2013/01/nigerias-illegal-oil-refineries/100439/
source: https://twitter.com/Diop_WB/status/502483593114181633/photo/1
source: http://moneymorning.com/tag/commodity-prices/
Resource Curse: Costs
1) Economic

2) Political

3) Civil War/Conflict

4) Environmental
1) overvalued exchange rates

2) exports are uncompetitive

3) leads to high complete dependence on natural resource exports

4) volatile prices
1) rentier politics

2) underinvestment

3) increase in expenditures

4) incorporation of volatile resource rents into the national budget
Civil War / Conflict
1) Lootable nature of natural resource
- oil enclaves vs. diamond mines

2) natural resource wealth -> rebellions (Collier 2007)
1) companies are out for

2) states with weak institutions -> weak/ineffective legislation
-> slow to adapt to change

3) individuals actions have consequences
Discussion: Poteete (2009)
1) What contribution is Poteete making to the resource curse literature?

2) What does path dependency mean? Why does this argument criticize path dependency

3) Do you think other African countries could repeat Botswana's success or are these solutions particular to Botswana?
Poteete's argument
-> broad-based coalition building in Botswana

-livestock producers & consumers of imports
-investing mineral resources for national development
-appealing to very real international threats

Note about yesterday's quiz:
-Acemoglu et al. (2001) argue that colonial govs were more likely to protect private property in settler colonies, and these protections were typically retained in the post-colonial gov
-But the colonial gov DID NOT implement private prop protections in Botswana (then Bechuanaland) which was a protectorate rather than a colony
-Acemoglu argues that pre-colonial institutions lingered b/c of the lack of colonial involvement and this led to private prop protection
-Poteete finds this weak!
Regardless, colonial policies in Botswana DID NOT institute private property protections, as did the settler colonies in East Africa
-check out pages 555-556 for more

I still counted question 2, but I decreased its value worth. So instead of 3 points for your quiz, the total you could receive is 2.5 (i.e. 1/2 a point for question 2 if correct). In e-learning you'll see that the percentage is entered:
1.0/2.5= .4
1.5/2.5= .6
2.0/2.5= .8
2.5/2.5= 1
Responses to Haglund (2008)
-What is the problem?

-Who are the major actors/where do the faults lie?

-Take on China's p.o.v. -> what are you responses to critiques of China's investment in Africa
Possible Solution?
-Zambia (& elsewhere) needs to strengthen its regulatory institutions

-Haglund (2008) highlights civil society
-govs can enable civil society watchdog mechanisms by:
-making reporting reports public record
-establishing complaints mechanisms
-publishing contract details
source: http://rough-polished.com/en/expertise/58214.html

Circle one:
- Zambia’s regulatory institutions can be described as:

a) An enabling agent for investment

b) A protective regulatory agent monitoring investment

a) True/False: Private companies investment in Africa is better because the companies have to respond to shareholders and get audited

b) True/False: Private companies investment in Africa is worse because companies are out for a profit and will manipulate circumstances and regulatory weaknesses so that a profit is made

c) True/False: Publicly-owned-companies’ investment in Africa is better because the companies are not reliant on profits and can implement good development without having to chase profits like private companies

d) True/False: Publicly-owned-companies’ investment in Africa is worse because the companies are not reliant on profits and can instead rely on China’s state-controlled banks for financial support regardless of economic performance

The author argues (true/false):
Final Note on 11/07 quiz
recall Pitcher (2012)
article on privatization of parastatals (or government-owned corporations) in S. Africa
privatization -> the privatizing of publicly-owned companies
public-ownership refers to ownership by the public via the state
Publicly-Traded Companies...
Freetown Crown Colony & the Sierra Leone Protectorate
-> Freetown Cown Colony: 1808
-> Sierra Leone Protectorate: 1896
Political Timeline- Sierra Leone
1961-1967 -> Margai brothers each serve as Prime Minister

1967 Elections -> Siaka Stevens (mayor of Freetown) becomes Prime Minister

1972 -> Stevens abolishes local government

1985 -> appointed successor Joseph Momoh becomes PM

1992 -> Momoh overthrown in a coup; Valentine Strasser (a junior officer in the military) becomes head of state (just before his 25th birthday)

1996 -> Strasser overthrown in a coup (led by Julius Maada Bio) and democratic elections are held. Ahmed Tejan Kabbah is elected President (1996-1997 & 1998-2007).

Political Timeline- Liberia
1971-1980 -> William Tolbert Jr. is Pres.
-> Americo-Liberian background

1980 coup -> puts Samuel Doe in power
- 13 members of cabinet publicly executed
- ministers walked through town naked and executed on the beach

Charles Taylor appointed as a Director General, but he embezzled $1,000,000

Charles Taylor
- fled to the US, was arrested, escaped from jail, and underwent military training in Libya
-Dec. 1989 -> started a civil war in Liberia

-later elected President, 1997 to 2003
Foday Sankoh
- a photographer in the army

- 1991 -> led the Revolutionary United Front (RUF), with the support of Charles Taylor
- RUF launched first attack in diamond-rich areas of Eastern Province (Sierra Leone)
(1) Was Sierra Leone's civil war the result of a resource curse?

(2) What other factors fueled the civil war? Without the presence of diamonds, would the civil war have happened?
source: http://www.geowords.org/ensci/01/ewp162.htm
source: http://www.fao.org/ag/AGP/AGPC/doc/counprof/Sierraleone/Sierraleone.htm
Extreme Poverty:

- the proportion of the pop. unable to meet their basic nutritional requirements

(1) "Since independence various Khartoum governments have tried to turn their state into a nation by forced Arabisation and Islamisation of the south. The latest means to this end is the NIF's Comprehensive Call" (72)

-is this inherently wrong?
- Comprehensive Call is a two-pronged attack one violent and malicious, the other brings individuals who relocate to 'peace camps' prosperity..
-> violent campaign: widespread killings, raising of villages, rape of women, abduction of children (taken to indoctrination camps)
-> relocation to 'peace camps': provides peace, safety, and even potential prosperity
-an extreme form of neo-patrimonial rule

-organs of authority determined by supply and demand rather than laws and regulations
-what does this mean?

-how does kleptocratic politics in Sudan relate to the official referendum vote tally (@ 98.93% in favor of secession)?

-how does De Waal (2014) describe the shutting down of national oil production in Jan 2012, and how does this relate to kleptocratic politics?
source: http://natocouncil.ca/tensions-in-south-sudan-peaceful-solution-or-inevitable-conflict/
source: http://www.energy-pedia.com/news/sudan/south-sudan-rules-out-sharing-oil-revenue-with-north
source: http://origins.osu.edu/article/maps-charts/political-map-darfur-sudan
-> Should international governments and aid agencies be sending monetary support to semidemocratic (semiautocratic) governments?
-> particularly if they implement liberalizing reforms, such as local government reform or transitions to multiparty politics?
-But what was the nature of the Islamic government in Khartoum, prior to South Sudan's independence, according to Dean (2000)? Is it a widely-accepted interpretation of Islam?
-> What are Tripp (2004) and Murisa's (2014) feelings about this liberal reforms implemented in Uganda and Zimbabwe?

-> Do the authors 'buy' what these rulers are 'selling'?
see: http://diginole.lib.fsu.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=7529&context=etd
-> introduction of multiparty politics (
), local government reform (
), and pro-women's reforms (

-> Does the good outweigh the bad?
-> Are these countries really committed to democratic reform?
-> Should these countries violent histories be taken into account when analyzing the right or wrongness of semi-authoritarian rule?

-> 64% of the legislative members are women (highest in the world)
-> the Constitution reserves 24 seats for women, but the public voted in 50 women

-> in the US, women hold 100 (18.7%) of 535 seats in the House and 20 (20%) of 100 seats in the Senate

2013 Legislative Elections in Rwanda
Senegal's democracy hindered by:
-> the lack of well-institutionalized, competitive parties
-> Resnick is particularly concerned about high vote volatility + low turnout

What does party institutionalization mean and why is it important for democracy?

Relatedly, what are the positive democratic benefits of a stable party system? What are the downsides?
Benefits of Institutionalized Parties:

-> mitigates the likelihood of personality politics

-> provides voters info on how leaders will govern and what they represent

-> voters can vote retrospectively
-> parties forced to present strong policy platforms
Downsides of highly institutionalized party systems:

-> can reflect the entrenchment of dominant parties

-> can reflect 'frozen cleavages' or 'ethnic censuses'
*BIG African Politics literature on the necessity of strong oppositon parties and what factors determine whether they will form
The Downfall of Wade: clientelism & Sufi brotherhoods
-> w/in Sufi brotherhoods, authority filters downwards
-> Khalifa General -> marabouts -> disciples

-> Mourides the most influenctial brotherhood b/c they controlled the main export crop: peanuts

-> Mouride marabouts receive land, credit, equipment from the gov; marabouts issue a 'ndigel' or an 'order' to vote for a particular candidate
-> crucial in helping Wade win the Presidency in 2000
-> Wade purged 5 prime ministers
-> economic problems (incl. global food price crisis in 2007)

-> attempted to pass legislation that would create the post of VP and reduce the required voting threshold for winning a presidential election from 50% to 25%

-> Jan 2012 - the Constitutional Council decides Wade's decision to run for a third-term was constitutional
Benin Political History
-> 3 person power struggle in Benin's early history
- North vs. Southeast vs. Southwest

Oct 26 1972 -> coup led by Kerekou inaugurated a Marxist constitutionalism

-> 1972 to 1990: Kerekou in power

- collapse of the USSR (Benin had been pro-USSR)
-oil crisis in neighboring Nigeria affected the economy

-> result:
1990 Conference des forces vives de la nation
(aka 1990 Constitutional Conference)
1990 Constitutional Conference
-> established a:
- Constitutional Commission
- Constitutional Court

-> degree of the Constitutional Court's independence is noteworthy
-struck down a proposed 2004 Family Code, which would institutionalize polygamous marriages, b/c it didn't offer women the same treatment..
Benin Heads of State
-> 1991-1996: Nicephore Soglo

-> 1996-2006: Kerekou (democratically elected!)

-> 2006-present: Yayi Boni
(1) How does Benin's political situation compare to Senegal's? Similarities? Differences?

(2) How do you all feel about Kerekou's election and re-election in 1996 and 2001?
1) What is a cabinet and why is it important? What function does it serve? Why is it of particular importance in African countries?

2) Previous studies of executive cabinets around the world indicate that women are less likely to become ministers in countries where appointments are the product of coalition negotiations? Why might this be the case?

3) Why are women poorly positioned to serve as ethnic patrons in Africa?

4) Why would the presence of women in the national legislature have an impact on cabinet appointments?
-weren't joined together until the 1951 constitution

-> 50,000 killed

-> Charles Taylor convicted of war crimes in the Special Court for Sierra Leone (SCSL) and sentenced to 50 years in prison

-> Kabbah in power until 2007

-> Ernest Bai Koroma won 2007 & 2012 elections, and is serving his last term
Full transcript