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Articles of Confederation & Constitutional Convention
Transcript of Articles of Confederation & Constitutional Convention
New Jersey Plan
"large" state plan
based on population
unicameral legislature (same)
"small" state plan
Senate : equal rep. per STATE
House: rep. based on POPULATION
Roger Sherman of CT
This means that there are two
houses in the Legislative Branch.
The Senate and
the House of Representatives.
What was the problem?
How was the problem solved?
Veterans from the American Revolution were not paid for their service because the government couldn't tax
Daniel Shays and other farmers led a rebellion closing down courts so they couldn't repossess their farms.
Courts were going to foreclose on their farms.
US government couldn't stop the rebellion.
Everyone realized that a new Constitution was needed with a stronger central government.
Weaknesses in the
to raise an army
to regulate trade
to enforce laws
to settle disputes
King George III
Weak Central Gov't.=
Power to "colonies"
* AOC set up by the Second Continental Congress
* "confederation" =LOOSE alliance of independent states
* Did not want a strong CENTRAL government
First Test: Conflict over "Western Lands"
divided NW Territory into 5 states
created process for adding states to Union
outlawed slavery in the territory
settled when states turned land claims over to CONGRESS
divided territory in 1mile x 1 mile lots
townships of 36 squares
orderly method for sale of land
Why did Congress need
money so badly?
Met in Philadelphia
Meeting called to AMEND the AOC
required a unanimous vote to Amend
unanimous decisions: 1. George Washington = Presiding
2. all debates = SECRET
3. SCRAP the AOC = write a new constitution
Disagreement = Debate
ELECTING THE PRESIDENT
should slaves count as part of a Southern state's population? or as taxable property?
Northern States = count as taxable property
Southern States = count as population
3 of every 5 slaves count as population (60%)
for seats in Congress
ELECTING THE CHIEF EXECUTIVE
in some states
state legislatures elected the governor
in some states
the people elected the governor
winner is determined per state
state sends delegates to vote in Electoral College
"winner take all" system
Commerce and Slave Trade
to regulate trade and
little Federal control
over trade and no
taxes on exports
Congress can not tax exports
Congress can tax imports
no regulation of SLAVE TRADE for 20 years
Congress can regulate INTERSTATE TRADE
United States Constitution
draft approved September 17, 1787
had to be RATIFIED by 9/13 states
began huge debate:
FEDERALISTS V. ANTIFEDERALISTS
add a SUPREMACY CLAUSE
add a SUPREME COURT
legislature = rep. PEOPLE
legislature = rep. STATES
about counting slaves
requires discussion about
how to choose a President
t o g o v e r n
American Revolution is won...
Confidence in STRONG central government
FEAR strong central government
believe that SEPARATION OF POWERS would prevent abuse of power by the government
believe that the central government will abuse its power = take away rights of the people
president = too much power
necessary and proper clause gave Congress too much power
fear of "peacetime" army
NO BILL OF RIGHTS
argued that is was dangerous to add a list of rights - might leave something out...
can not get ratification w/o support of ANTI-FEDERALISTS
Federalists agree to add the BILL OF RIGHTS
purpose: protect the people from their government
"large" state plan
need a new government