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French Colonialism in Vietnam

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Atikah Zool Hilmey

on 5 March 2013

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Transcript of French Colonialism in Vietnam

BACKGROUND ECONOMICS (POSITIVE IMPACTS) - rice and rubber were the main cash crops of these plantations
- amount of land used for growing rice almost quadrupled in the 20 years after 1880
- by 1930s, Indochina was supplying 60,000 tons of rubber each year, five per cent of total global production
- factories and built mines were built to tap into Vietnam’s deposits of coal, tin and zinc IMPACTS OF FRENCH COLONIALISM IN VIETNAM POSITIVE IMPACTS
NEGATIVE IMPACTS ECONOMICS (NEGATIVE IMPACTS) FRENCH COLONIALISM IN VIETNAM Geography - occupies eastern and southern part of the Indochinese peninsula in Southeast Asia HISTORY - Vietnamese are descendants of nomadic Mongols from China and migrants from Indonesia
- Portuguese were the first Europeans to enter the area
- France established its influence early in the 19th century
- France first unified Vietnam in 1887 VIETNAM MAP Emperor Gia Long Emperor Minh Mang Emperor Tu Duc REASONS FOR FRENCH COLONIALISM ECONOMIC - French explorers and colonialists felt that Vietnam was a ‘backdoor’ to China
- iron, tin, zinc and phosphate could be found in Vietnam
- coal mining in Vietnamese towns like Hon Gai along Ha Long Bay became very important Hon Gai coal mine, Quang Ninh province POLITICAL - France was defeated in the Napoleonic Wars and lost its large colonial empire
- this resulted in France wanting to build up their colonial power
- they felt a strong need to compete with Britain’s large colonial empire
- French army, navy officers, governors in Asia felt that France was falling behind the rest of Europe in gaining a foothold in Asia RELIGIOUS - French priests like Alexandre de Rhodes converted many Vietnamese to Catholicism
- members of the Vietnamese court urged the monarchy to undertake a certain degree of westernization and reform
- in the southern part of the country, Catholics enjoyed the protection of Viceroy Le Van Duyet
- series of imperial laws (edicts) were introduced to forbid the practice of Catholicism
- missionaries stepped up their pressure on the French government to intervene militarily and to establish a French protectorate over Vietnam LOCAL FACTORS INTERNAL DISORDER
MEN-ON-THE-SPOT INTERNAL DISORDER - Nguyen emperors were resistant to change as they adopted a policy of isolationism
- there were peasant revolts, catholic revolts and pretenders to the throne
- there were also pirates and rebels in the north MEN-ON-THE-SPOT - local governors and army officers stationed in the colonies were responsible for colonialism
- either acted because there was too much internal disorder or they were so passionate about expanding French colonies Viceroy Le Van Duyet Alexandre de Rhodes Catholics execution Jean Dupuis SOCIAL (POSITIVE IMPACTS) - from before the 1920s, the French had been educating young Vietnamese
- old Confucian educational institutions had been abolished
- Vietnamese students mastered French and learned more about liberty, equality and fraternity
- French missionaries, officials and their families opened primary schools
SOCIAL (POSITIVE IMPACTS) - traditional local temples, monuments and houses were declared derelict and destroyed
- buildings of French architecture and style were erected EDUCATION INFRASTRUCTURE - Vietnam’s thriving subsistence economy was transformed into a proto-capitalist system
- millions of Vietnamese no longer worked to provide for themselves
- Viet farmers came voluntarily, lured by false promises of high wages POLITICAL (NEGATIVE IMPACTS) - Vietnamese was burdened with an extensive taxation system
- state monopolies on rice wine and salt
- French officials and colonists benefited the most from growing, selling and exporting the narcotic drug opium
SOCIAL (NEGATIVE IMPACTS) - Vietnamese names of cities, towns and streets were changed to French names
- business tended to be conducted in French
INFRASTRUCTURE SOCIAL (NEGATIVE IMPACTS) - young Vietnamese filled clerical and minor administrative positions
- they were usually better educated than the French man who was their immediate superior
- educated young joined those Vietnamese business persons who disliked colonial regulations and favoritism toward French-owned enterprises EDUCATION CONCLUSION Albert Sarrault High School (now Tran Phu High School) in Hanoi rural school bridge on Yunnan-northern Vietnam railway tramcar route in Saigon kids at a kindergarten in Hanoi were walking into the dining-room bibliography - CONTENT: http://alphahistory.com/vietnam/french-colonialism-in-vietnam/
bibliography - IMAGES: http://talkvietnam.com/2012/06/rare-pictures-of-vietnam-in-1932/
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