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Hydroelectric Energy IES El Palmeral

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by

Ignacio García Guerra

on 21 November 2013

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Transcript of Hydroelectric Energy IES El Palmeral

HYDROELECTRIC ENERGY
HYDROELECTRIC ENERGY
The amount of electricity produced depends on the
VOLUME and HEIGHT of the falling water.
or by the construction of a dam.
Hydroelectric energy is a clean and renewable kind of energy produced by falling water.
What is
?
PAST & PRESENT
how
HYDROELECTRIC
POWER STATION

works
The water is carried down to a
TURBINE
, where the kinetic energy is transformed into rotation mechanical energy. During the history there have been invented different types:

Electricity passes through a
TRANSFORMER
that increases the voltage and sends it across transmission lines.
The water rejoins the main stream of the river.
This can be generated by the natural drop of a river,
The turbine is connected to a generator which houses electromagnets, a rotor and coils of copper wire. A flow of electrons (electricity) is created in the
ALTERNATOR
.
(cc) image by anemoneprojectors on Flickr
Advantages and
Disadvantages

ADVANTAGES
Produces little pollution and minimal greenhouse gases
Requires minimal maintenance
low operating costs
Renewable energy source
Hydroelectric dams are used for flood control, farmland irrigation, drinking water and recreation
very efficient
Construction is very lengthly and costly
Hydroelectric dams can affect the flow of a river, altering ecosystems and disturbing wildlife
For thousands of years, people have been using the power of falling water through water wheels they used to have an efficiency of the 20%
From 100 B.C. until the end of the XIX century, all the hydroelectric energy was transformed into mechanic energy, which was used in water wheels, in mills to grind wheat, and in factories used it to power machines.
High potential energy
Low potential energy
Kinetic energy
Finding a suitable location is difficult
because of impacts on residents
and the environment which
stalls development in hydroelectricity
Decaying trees and other
organic matter submerged under water during construction of a dam can release methane, a greenhouse gas
Bibliography
Aldeadávila
Hydroelectric power plant
Water wheel
Water is collected in a reservoir/dam. It's needed a retaining wall, which main function is retaining water.
There are two main types:
GRAVITY WALL:
It retains water with its weight. It´s normally straight or a little bit curved. Its outline is with a triangle shaped. It's too expensive to build.
ARCH WALL:
Water weight is transmitted to the mountain walls. The more the water weights, the more the wall is hammered in the mountain walls. The size of the wall is smaller, so the construction is cheaper, but with the same efficiency as the others.
FLOODGATE:
Water is released from the dam without passing through the powerhouse when it's necessary due to security reasons (big rains) or for watering.
BALANCE CHIMNEY:
Small tank full of water connected with the penstock that avoids the differences of pressure when the
flow of water is
regulated at the
exit.
INTAKE:
It's normally situated in 1/3 of the height of the wall that avoids the mud and other materials flow with the water until the turbine. It also has filtering bars.
WATER WEEL
Efficiency: 20%
FOURNEYRON TURBINE
Efficiency: 80-85%
PELTON TURBINE
Efficiency: 90%
KAPLAN
TURBINE
Efficiency: 93-95%
FRANCIS
TURBINE
Efficiency: 80%
The alternator and the turbines are inside the
POWERHOUSE
.
DISADVANTAGES
DISADVANTAGES
POWER
&
ENERGY OBTAINED

P=g·Q·h
E=P·t=(g·Q·h)·t
P= hydraulic power (kW)
Q= water flow (kg/s)
h= height from the dam highest level to the turbine (m)
t= time (h)
g= gravity (9,8 m/s2)
E= Hydraulic energy (kWh)
TYPES OF
HYDRO-POWER
STATIONS:
Depending on the power that they produce we can find two types:
Mini-hydroelectric Power Stations:
they have power lower than 10MW. Their energy have been used in tiny towns and factories situated next to a river.
Big hydroelectric Power Stations:
they have a power higher than 10 MW. We can find two types:

Pure pump stations:
They have two dumps, the lower is very small and it's natural. So when the demand is high this stations work as normal power stations, but when the demand fall the electric energy leftover is used for get the water from the lower dump to the higher.

Mix pump stations:
They can produce energy without a previous pumping. They don't have to pump the water from the lower dump to the higher because the higher dump is feed by the river.
"Tecnología Industrial I" ed: Mc Graw Hill, pages 108-111
"Technologies ES0 II, OXFORD CLIL" ed: Oxford Education
www.wordreference.com
www.tecno12-18.com
Victor M. de Haro Soriano
Juan de la Cruz Belmonte Martínez
Ignacio García Guerra
Industrial Technology I
IES "El Palmeral"
2013/14
HYDROELECTRIC
POWER STATION
Used in waterfalls lower than 25 m.
Big flow of water.
One of the most used nowadays.
Very improved turbine.
Used in very big systems.
Push up to 50 tons.
Used in high waterfalls but not very big flow of water.
Mixture of the Kaplan and Pelton turbines.
Used in low waterfalls with big flow of water.
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