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The History of Judaism
Transcript of The History of Judaism
Judaism, it is necessary to first
understand what it means to be of Jewish faith. 1800 BCE 1050-920 BCE 1800 BCE 701 BCE 1748 1938 70 CE known as the three patriarchs Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob are the ancestors who founded what we know today as Judaism Joseph Benjamin Esau Jacob Isaac Abraham Ishmael Reuben Gad Dan Naphtali Judah Levi Simeon Issachar Zebulun Asher the patriarch's family tree 1250 B.C.E. 1020 - 900 B.C.E. Domination Jacob's 12 sons then went on to become the ancestors of the 12 tribes of Israel The family line started with Abraham who had his first child with Hagar and his second with Sarah. When Sarah had Isaac, Hagar and her child were sent away with only bread and water. Isaac then went on to become the subject to test Abraham's faith in God. Just as Abraham got ready to sacrifice his own son, God stopped him and was pleased with both of their courage and faith. Isaac later married Rebecca who gave birth to Jacob and Esau Of the two brothers, Jacob was favored by Rebecca and was the more spiritually-minded one. When the two brothers had gotten older, Rebecca had tricked Esau into giving up his birthright for a blessing to Jacob. Knowing this, Jacob fled to live with his uncle where he met and married Rachel and Leah and their two maidservants. Between the four women, Jacob had 12 children. The Journey Abraham and the Patriarchs As centuries passed, the descendants of Jacob became enslaved by the Egyptians and suffered greatly In approximately the year 1580 B.C.E., a new Pharaoh who despised the Israelites became the ruler of Egypt. Because of this, he made the Israelites along with others into slaves under the Egyptians. This was until Moses, the greatest Prophet of all time led the Israelites out of the bondage that the Egyptians held over them Along with his brother Aaron, Moses approached the Pharaoh and instigated the Ten Plagues of Egypt. Moses used this time to lead the Israelites out of Egypt, across the Red Sea, and to the base of Mount Sinai. Here God revealed the Torah to Moses and instructed him to create it and give it to the Israelites. Because Moses lacked in faith towards God however, he was not permitted to enter the Promised Land (Israel) and died shortly before the Israelites crossed over. King Saul King David King Solomon The first King anointed by the prophet Samuel A decedent of Benjamin, one of the 12 sons of Jacob Won Victories against the Ammonites and the Philistines Became erratic with the overwhelming power from being King After Prophet Samuel noticed Saul's autocratic way of leadership, instead of anointing Saul's son the next King of Israel, Samuel secretly anointed David as King Slayed Goliath the Giant and drove away the Philistines Following the events of the Exodus, the 12 Israelite tribes were led into the promised land and conquered the land. After years of prosperity during his leadership, David's son, Solomon was next in line to become King 1020 - 1000 B.C.E. 961 - 922 B.C.E. 1000 - 961 B.C.E. King Solomon's years as King were known to be peaceful He was also noted to have created the First Temple in Jerusalem Under his rule, the Israelites also captured Jerusalem 750 - 400 B.C.E. and Restoration Following King Solomon's death, 10 of the 12 Israel tribes moved north and formed their own Kingdom in Samaria. The tribes of Judah and Benjamin that had choose to stay remained in Jerusalem. In 722 B.C.E. the Assyrians conquered the ten tribes that had split away after King Solomon's death. In 598 B.C.E. the tribe of Judah was invaded and were forced into exile in Babylonia. In 586 B.C.E. Jerusalem was put under siege and eventually destroyed. In 538 B.C.E. the Persians Conquered Babylon In 538 B.C.E. Persian King Cyrus allowed approximately 50,000 Israelites to return to their homeland In 516 B.C.E. the Second Temple of Jerusalem was erected and maintained. Following these events were centuries of peace and tranquility. After enjoying the peace for almost 4 centuries, a new threat appeared to the Judaism religion. Greek Roman Alexander the Great In 198 B.C.E. the Syrians gained control over Israel and began to outlaw the practice of Judaism for Hellenism. Hellenism - Greek People and their Culture Eventually the Jewish arm was able to push back the Syrians and regain control of the Temple in Jerusalem. When the Jews returned to the Temple, they found that there was only enough oil to keep the menorah lit for one day, yet miraculously, the candle stayed lit for eight days. The celebration of Hanukkah glorifies this event. Victory however, was brief.. Herod the Great Shortly after the Second Temple was rededicated, the Roman Empire rushed in and took control for about 700 years. In 70 C.E. the Jews revolted against the Roman Empire which led to the destruction of the Second Temple Herod the Great was the Roman King who ruled over Judah and was known for his master building creations The Holocaust 200 - 100 B.C.E. 100 B.C.E. - 600 C.E. By the 7th Century, Arabs had taken over Palestine and forced many Jews to work for them. 1290 - 1492 C.E. Throughout the Middle Ages, Jews had been getting persecuted more and more to the point where they ended up getting expelled from their own homes. 1290 C.E. Expelled from England 1306 - 1394 C.E. Expelled from France 1420 C.E. Expelled from Austria 1492 C.E. Expelled from Spain And it only got worse.. 1930 - 1945 C.E. It started with one man. Adolf Hitler. With his grievous anger towards the Jews, Hitler led the Nazi army and fed the fire that was the hatred of the Jews. At first it was expelling the Jews into Ghettos and left to die. That was not enough though. To further shame the Jews, the Nazi army initiated Kristallnacht, the Night of Broken Glass. And then, the "Final Solution". The Gas Chambers. Rows and rows of Jews lined up to be gassed and killed. In the end, approxmately 11 million people were killed. 6 million being Jewish 1948 C.E. 1935 - 1972 C.E. On the 14th of May 1948, Israel declared it's independence as the State of Israel. On the same date, the Israel Declaration of Independence was signed Capital: Jerusalem Official Language: Hebrew, Arabic Population: 7,933,200 Regina Jonas was the first female Rabbi to be ordained on December 25th, 1935 East of Berlin. In the United States the Reform movement had their first female Rabbi ordained in the year of 1972. This was followed by the Conservation Movement in 1974 and the Reconstruction Movement in 1985. Regina Jonas