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Iberian Lynx

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Christopher Groves

on 28 February 2013

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Transcript of Iberian Lynx

Iberian Lynx Christopher Groves Niche and Function "Carnivora"
Eats the rabbit population in the region (although this population is also decreasing)
Will kill smaller carnivores, including those that can be viewed as pests, as a way of eliminating competition for food
Serves to slow the decline of the rabbit population, since smaller carnivores are more likely to increase their own population more rapidly, which would quickly deplete food sources Adaptations Generally nocturnal
Peak activity occurs at twilight when individuals leave shelter to forage
Both sexes are solitary and territorial (male territories will overlap those of several females) Bibliography Habitat Mediterranean woodland / Maquis thickets
(mosaic of dense scrub for shelter and open pasture for hunting rabbits)
Coto Doñana area of south-western Spain Before we get started... Would be the first cat species to become extinct since Smilodon (the saber-toothed tiger) 10,000 years ago
Rarest cat species in the world
Critically Endangered on ICUN's Red List Threats Food Web Specialized feeder
Rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) are 80-100% of diet (rodents, hares, partridges, ducks, geese, juvenile deer, and fallow deer)
Known to kill other carnivore species, including those regarded as pests by humans, such as feral cats and foxes, but do not eat them
Highly specialized diet makes it a naturally vulnerable species and the rapid decline in rabbit populations since the 1950s has had a direct impact on lynx numbers Status 2010– Critically Endangered
2006– Critically Endangered (IUCN 2010.2)
2002– Critically Endangered
1996– Endangered
1994– Endangered (Groombridge 1994)
1990– Endangered (IUCN 1990)
1988– Endangered (IUCN Conservation Monitoring Centre 1988)
1986– Endangered (IUCN Conservation Monitoring Centre 1986) Population Laws Listed on CITES Appendix I (Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species) which prevents international trade of the Iebrian lynx in any form.
Fully protected under national law in Spain and Portugal, and is classed as Critically Endangered on the national Red Lists of both countries.
Covered by a range of European legislation (many international associations like IUCN and WWF work to protect the lynx)
The Iberian lynx occurs in some protected areas, notably Doñana National Park, which protect the animal from habitat disturbance and increased interaction with humans Recovery Measures Public awareness and education programs have helped change attitudes towards the lynx
Two international seminars have been held, in 2002 and 2004, to establish a coordinated strategy to save the Iberian lynx from extinction http://maps.iucnredlist.org/map.html?id=12520 Lynx pardinus Iberian Lynx, Pardel Lynx,
Spanish Lynx Lynx d'Espagne,
Lynx pardelle Lince Ibérico http://www.martenvandijl.com/bestanden/iberian-lynx-01-web-new.jpg "A taxon is Critically Endangered when it is facing an extremely high risk of extinction in the wild in the immediate future."
-IUCN http://djringer.com/photos/d/3940-2/maquis.jpg http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/3/37/Oryctolagus_cuniculus_Tasmania_2.jpg "Oryctolagus cuniculus decline has escalated in recent years. In Spain the rabbit has declined to 20% of the population size from 1975. As of 2005, rabbit populations in the Iberian peninsula have declined to as little as 5% of the number from 1950."
-IUCN Rabbit currently defined as "near threatened" Smaller than the Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx)
Bobbed tail, spotted coat, muscular body and long legs.
Short, coarse fur is bright yellowish-red to tawny in color, with brown or black spots, and white underparts.
Male Iberian lynx larger than the female
Prominent whiskers on the face and long, erect tufts of black hair on the tips of the ears
Eyesight and powerful sense of smell to detect prey from up to 300 metres away http://1.bp.blogspot.com/-zG2IlVO9SvU/TrUs8U482MI/AAAAAAAACeU/donyVcK5574/s400/true-wildlife-iberian+lynx3.jpg Restricted to the Iberian peninsula
Scattered groups in the southwestern quadrant of the Iberian peninsula (due to fragmentation of their natural habitat by agricultural and industrial development).
Two or three groups remain in Spain (possibly only 168 individuals in all) that are considered to have viable long-term populations
Possibly extinct in Portugal. http://farm1.static.flickr.com/29/53025879_b59d46a95e.jpg Rabbit Population Rabbit Population Decline
Habitat changes
Myxomatosis (disease in rabbits that can cause skin tumors, blindness, pneumonia, and death within 48 hours to 14 days of contraction)
Rabbit Haemorrhagic Disease (RHD) (can kill rabbit in several days, and the disease is used in New Zealand where $23 million are spent each year to control rabbit populations and fix damage caused by them.
Over-hunting of rabbits
Prey scarcity has been compounded by high rates of non-natural mortality and habitat destruction and fragmentation. Iberian Lynx will only eat rabbits, and has a narrow habitat spectrum. Habitat destruction, deterioration, fragmentation, and alteration
Planting of Mediterranean scrublands with pines and eucalyptus
Over stocking of deer and livestock on private estates
Opening up of roads and forest tracks in previously remote areas
Afforestation and scrub clearance schemes
Dam construction
Building of vacation homes and golf courses
WWF Spain/Adena has identified 53 different public works that will affect important areas for the Iberian lynx.
Heavier and faster traffic is also taking an unacceptably high toll on lynx each year as juveniles venture away from their areas of birth in search of new habitats. (Road kill)
Intensive agriculture
(Illegal) hunting (protected since the 1970's)
Accidental deaths in traps intended for other animals More than 40 separate lynx populations in Spain and Portugal have collapsed since the early 1980s
84 - 143 adults surviving in two breeding populations: in the Coto Doñana and near Andújar in the eastern Sierra Morena.
Doñana population numbers 24-33 adults
Sierra Morena is the stronghold of the species with 60-110 adults
Populations are isolated from one another making them even more vulnerable. http://205.186.162.174/wp-content/uploads/iberian-lynx.jpg Qualifies as Critically Endangered
Continuing decline due to severe depletion of its primary prey, the European rabbit, by disease and over-hunting
High rates of non-natural lynx mortality and habitat destruction and fragmentation. The population of the cat is declining rapidly, with the current upper estimated still under 300 individuals, compared to the 100,000 in the early 1900's. The population will continue to decrease if the rabbit population problem cannot be solved, and if habitat disturbance can't be prevented. Furthermore, there is also known to be inter-special violence, with litter-mates maiming and killing one another for no reason, and mothers eating their young on occasion. http://informationsentinel.com/resources/Biology-_Computer_skills_project_2_Christian/Biology-%20Computer%20skills%20project/Assets/Home_image002.gif http://ge09d-geography-2010.wikispaces.com/file/view/Population_Graph.png/120615801/523x398/Population_Graph.png http://ge09d-geography-2010.wikispaces.com/file/view/Decline_in_Iberian_Lynx_Numbers_2.1.png/123004189/Decline_in_Iberian_Lynx_Numbers_2.1.png ? In the early 1990's, 2000 vaccinated rabbits were reintroduced into the area to try to turn around the rabbit population decline. http://newsimg.bbc.co.uk/media/images/40911000/gif/_40911597_lynx_gra203.gif http://www.cites.org/gallery/pics/CITES-logo.jpg The main concern right now is at least maintaining the current lynx population, and protecting current habitat, along with restoring damaged habitat, while also working to increase the prey population Captive breeding program has been started in Spain, and in Portugal, the National Action Plan foresees a re-introduction program.
The WWF is working with regional and national government in Spain to prevent the most damaging infrastructure developments, and to drive forward the designation, management and protection of Spain’s Natura 2000 sites.
(Natura 2000 is a European network of protected sites that represent areas of the highest value for rare, endangered or vulnerable plants and animals.) http://www.celotajs.lv/cont/wrth/natura2000/images/natura2000.jpg http://www.plasticoceans.net/wp-content/uploads/WWF-logo.gif http://www.blogdemedioambiente.com/files/2010/10/medioambiente_uno-de-cada-cinco-vertebrados-en-peligro1.png "1994 Categories & Criteria (version 2.3)." The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. N.p., n.d. Web. 27 Feb. 2013. <http://www.iucnredlist.org/static/categories_criteria_2_3#definitions>

"Can Spain Save the World's Most Endangered Cat?" - National Wildlife Federation. N.p., n.d. Web. 27 Feb. 2013. <http://www.nwf.org/News-and-Magazines/National-Wildlife/Animals/Archives/2006/Can-Spain-Save-the-Worlds-Most-Endangered-Cat.aspx>

"Iberian Lynx." - WWF UK. N.p., n.d. Web. 27 Feb. 2013. <http://www.wwf.org.uk/what_we_do/safeguarding_the_natural_world/wildlife/iberian_lynx/>

"Iberian Lynx." Fauna & Flora International. N.p., n.d. Web. 27 Feb. 2013. <http://www.fauna-flora.org/species/iberian-lynx/>

"Iberian Lynx (Lynx Pardinus)." Iberian Lynx Videos, Photos and Facts. N.p., n.d. Web. 27 Feb. 2013. <http://www.arkive.org/iberian-lynx/lynx-pardinus/#src=portletV3api>

"Lynx Pardinus." (Iberian Lynx, Pardel Lynx, Spanish Lynx). N.p., n.d. Web. 27 Feb. 2013. <http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/summary/12520/0>

"Of Cats." : Iberian Lynx. N.p., n.d. Web. 27 Feb. 2013. <http://www.ofcats.com/2008/02/iberian-lynx.html>

"Oryctolagus Cuniculus." (European Rabbit). N.p., n.d. Web. 27 Feb. 2013. <http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/41291/0>
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