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Euro Period Two Review
Transcript of Euro Period Two Review
AP Euro Period Two Review
1648-1815 (Congress of Vienna)
17th and 18th Century Absolute Monarchs
o James I (1603-1625)
First Stuart Ruler
“Divine Right of Kings”—I’m in charge because God said so.
• Upset the balanced relationship between the monarch and parliament
• Parliament used the “power of the purse”
o Charles I (1625-1649)
Petition of Right
• Agreement in which the monarch must adhere to:
o Prohibition of taxation without consent of parliament
o No quartering of soldiers
o No martial law in times of peace
• Charles agreed and then reneged
o Refused to call Parliament together from 1629-1640
Finally called Parliament (1640-1660) a.k.a. the long Parliament
o Long Parliament placed several restrictions on the monarch
Abolition of arbitrary courts
Cancellation on taxes not approved by Parliament
Triennial Act-Parliament must meet once per three years
English Civil War (1642-1651)
• New Model Army
o Radical Puritans who believed they were doing God’s Work
o King Charles captured escaped captured
Cromwell determined to secure victory
• Expelled Presbyterian members of Parliament
• Condemned Charles …beheaded on January 30, 1649
• Cromwell abolished the monarchy…created a commonwealth
o Created the role of Lord Protector
o Ruled with brutality
o Only those men who owned property could participate
o Charles II (1660-1685)
Restored Stuart Monarchy
Restored Anglican as the state religion
• Catholics and Protestants forced to conform
o James II (1685-1688)
o William and Mary
Declaration of a Bill of Rights
• Petition the government
• Keep arms
• Jury trial
• GR viewed as the end of struggle between monarch and parliament
o Peter the Great (1689-1725)
He admired Western European technologies
Reorganized the army
• Conscription of peasants
Table of Ranks
Controlled the Russian Orthodox Church
Western customs became ubiquitous
• Men required to shave beards
• Women must remove veils
Modernized and Westernized Russia
o Louis XIV (1643-1715)
Expanded the court of Versailles
Known as the “Sun King”
• The source of light for all his people
Recentralized the government
“One king, one law, one faith”
• Edict of Fontainebleau (1685)
o Revoked the Edict of Nantes
o Protestants were not free to practice
• Finance minister
• Mercantilism- nation’s prosperity depended on its supply of gold and silver
o Active government participation
o Favorable balance of trade
• Capable of raising tremendous sums of money for the Treasury…which Louis XIV would deplete
o Four wars
Invasion of Spanish Netherlands
War of the League of Ausburg
War of Spanish Succession
o In the beginning of the seventeenth century, Spain had the most populous empire in the world.
• Bankrupt Spain due to excessive spending
Phillip III (1598-1621)
• Interested in court luxuries
Phillip IV (1621-1665)
• Domestic reforms to curtail power of Catholic church
o European rulers who embraced many of the philosophes' reforms, monarchical government dedicated to rational strengthening of central absolutist administration at cost of lesser political power centers
• Frederick II of Prussia
o aka, Frederick the Great
Well versed in Enlightenment thought
King was the , “first servant of the state”
• Limited freedom of speech
• Religious tolerance
Enlarged the army
• Catherine the Great of Russia (1762-1796)
o Questioned serfdom, use of torture and promoted equality before the law
o Pugachev’s Rebellion
Slave uprising in response to increased power of the nobility
Led to greater repression of peasantry
o Expanded Russian territory to Poland
• Joseph II of Austria
o Ended serfdom
Peasantry awarded hereditary land rights
o New legal code
Abrogated death penalty
Equality before the law
The expansion of European commerce accelerated the growth of a worldwide economic network
• Market economy-the type, quantity and price of goods and services produced are determined in the marketplace by supply and demand
o David Ricardo and the iron law of wages: -market price of labor--wages that the laborers receive
natural price--minimum wages necessary for subsistence of a person when natural price is greater than market price, condition of worker is wretched
• Agricultural Revolution
o Characterized by:
Increased food production
• More farmland
• Increased crop yields
• Healthier livestock
• Climate changes
o Abandon the open field system
End of cooperative farms
Restoration of soil
o Healthier, more numerous livestock
More manure for fertilization
o Jethro Tull-Seed Drill
Enclosure Acts: laws passed in England to ensure that open fields can be broken up and fenced in.
• Forced many into wage laborers
• Changes in Industry
o Cottage industry
a.k.a., putting out system
• capitalists brought goods ‘out’ to rural workers
a family enterprise
o Increases consumers
Consumer Revolution-The wide-ranging growth in consumption and new attitudes toward consumer goods that emerged in the cities of northwestern Europe in the second half of the eighteenth century.
o John Kay – Flying Shuttle
o Richard Arkwright- Water frame
• Methods of Finance
o Establishment of Public and Private banks
Governments could borrow huge sums of money
o Amsterdam became the economic center of Europe
o The Enlightenment was a time period was about obtaining the freedom to exercise your own intelligence.
reason is the arbiter of all things.
a new concept of man, his existence on earth, & the place of the earth in the universe.
application of the methods of science to religion & philosophy.
• Inductive reasoning.
the greatest good for the greatest number.
No opinion is worth burning your neighbor for.
Optimism & Self-Confidence
The belief that man is intrinsically good.
• The belief in social progress.
Of thought and expression.
• Bring liberty to all men (modern battle against absolutism).
Education of the Masses
• Justice, kindness, and charity: no torture or indiscriminant incarceration.
• Due process of law.
Written constitutions --> listing citizens, rights.
• Two Treatises of Government, 1690
• The individual must become a “rational creature.”
• Virtue can be learned and practiced.
• Human beings possess free will.
o they should be prepared for freedom.
o obedience should be out of conviction, not out of fear.
• Legislators owe their power to a contract
with the people.
• Neither kings nor wealth are divinely ordained.
• There are certain natural rights that are endowed by God to all human beings.
o life, liberty, property!
• He favored a republic as the best form of government.
• The Theory of Moral Sentiments and an Inquiry Into the Nature of Causes of the Wealth of Nations
o A vehement attack of the mercantilist system.
o Capitalist system
Goods and services are produced for profitable exchange.
LABOR IS THE SOURCE OF VALUE
The “Invisible Hand” of the market
Therefore, the basic market mechanism is self-regulating!
Individuals seeking success are driven by self-interest: Profit Motive
The Law of Supply and Demand
• Individuals who are free to pursue their self-interest will produce goods and services that others want, at prices others will be willing to pay.
Government should interfere minimally with the free and efficient workings of the market
• Laissez faire: “Leave things alone.”
• Candide, 1759
• Every man is guilty of all the good he didn’t do.
• God is a comedian playing to an audience too afraid to laugh.
• If God did not exist, it would be necessary to invent him.
• Men are equal; it is not birth, but virtue that makes the difference.
• “I may not agree with what you have to say, but I will defend to the death your right to say it.”
• Life is short, brutish, and harsh
• Needed a strong, absolute ruler (Machiavellian)
The Baron de Montesquieu
• On the Spirit of Laws, 1758
• Three types of government:
• A separation of political powers ensured freedom and liberty.
Jean Jacques Rousseau
• The Social Contract, 1762.
• Virtue exists in the “state of nature,” but lost in “society.”
• Government must preserve “virtue” and “liberty.”
• Man is born free, yet everywhere he is in chains.
o The concept of the “Noble Savage.”
• Liberty, Equality, Fraternity.
o Civil liberty: invest ALL rights and liberties into a society.
• “General Will.”
• Rousseau’s thinking:
o Had a great influence on the French revolutionaries of 1789.
o His attacks on private property inspired the communists of the 19th century such as Karl Marx.
• All things must be examined, debated, investigated without exception and without regard for anyone’s feelings.
• A Vindication of the Rights of Woman (1792)
• Advocated education for women, which would open the door for women’s participation in politics
• Believed marriage was legal prostitution unless women were given a rational education
• Argued for co-educational school model, but rich and poor ought to be separated by age 10
Spread of the Enlightenment
Women played a big role in salon movement
Organized by the upper classes, mainly women
Marie-Therese Geoffrin, most influential and patron of Diderot’s Encyclopedia
Madame de Stael later brought German romantic ideas into France in early 1800s
Ideas also spread through coffeehouses, academies, lending libraries and the novel, and Masonic lodges.
The French Revolution & Napoleon (1789-1815)
o Causes of the French Revolution:
Social inequality – the “Ancien” (Old) Regime
Economic crisis in France
The Four Stages of the French Revolution
1. Moderate Bourgeois Stage (1789-1793)
1st Constitution & Declaration of Rights
(National Assembly – Legislative Assembly)
o 1789: Louis XVI and the Estates- General
Tennis Court Oath (June)
The National Assembly
• Fall of the Bastille (July)
• The Great Fear
o Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen (August)
Olympe de Gouges (1791)
o Women’s March on Versailles (October)
o 1790: Civil Constitution of the Clergy
o 1791: 1st French Constitution & the Legislative Assembly
o Royals flee!
o 1792: Brunswick Manifesto and the First Coalition
o September Massacres
2. Reign of Terror (1793-1794)
Radical & bloody phase under Maximilien Robespierre
o 1792: the National Convention (Sept.) under Girondin rule
o 1793: execution of the king (Jan.)
o Committee of Public Safety (June)
Robespierre, Danton, Marat
Levee en Masse (August)
o Death of Marat (July)
o Robespierre’s Republic of Virtue and the Reign of Terror under Jacobin rule
o Marie Antoinette executed (Oct.)
o 1794: Thermidorian Reaction (July)
3. Conservative Phase: Backlash against the Terror (1795-1799)
Attempts at stability & moderation
o 1795: The Directory
Challenges from left and right
Gives Napoleon command of French Army
Victories abroad – returns a hero
o 1799: Brumaire Coup
4. Shifts back toward dictatorship (1799-1815)
Napoleon becomes consul (dictator), and later, emperor
o Policies of Napoleon
Concordat of 1801- the agreement between Pope Pius VII and Napoleon that healed the religious division in France by giving the French Catholics free practice of their religion and Napoleon political power
Napoleonic Code: the civil code put out by Napoleon that:
granted equality of all male citizens before the law
granted absolute security of wealth and private property
o Military Conquests
Haitian revolt and independence by 1804
Multinational coalitions against Napoleon
The British and Horatio Nelson
• Trafalgar, 1805
Continental System, 1806
Napoleon's policy of preventing trade between Great Britain and continental Europe, intended to destroy Great Britain's economy…only hurt Europe
Peninsular War, 1808-1813
Horrors of War, Goya
Invasion of Russia, 1812
Battle of Leipzig, 1813
Elba and escape: the Hundred Days, 1815
Congress of Vienna
o The 5 “Great Powers” met to set up policies to achieve a lasting peace in post-Napoleonic Europe
o Prince Klemens von Metternich of Austria was the most influential & was very distrustful of democratic ideals of the French Rev.
o Restore a Balance of Power: no country would be a threat to others
o Forced to give up territories Napoleon took, but kept 1790 boundaries & overseas possessions, army & gov
o Containment of France: prevent future aggression by surrounding France w/ strong countries
o Legitimacy: Restore Europe’s families to thrones that had been driven out by Napoleon
o France: Louis XVIII ruled as a Constitutional Monarch
o Spain, Italy, Germany: rulers restored
o Concert of Europe – Principle of Intervention