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Euro Period Two Review

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Jeff Rine

on 12 February 2019

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Transcript of Euro Period Two Review


AP Euro Period Two Review
1648-1815 (Congress of Vienna)

17th and 18th Century Absolute Monarchs
• England
o James I (1603-1625)
First Stuart Ruler
“Divine Right of Kings”—I’m in charge because God said so.
• Upset the balanced relationship between the monarch and parliament
• Parliament used the “power of the purse”
o Charles I (1625-1649)
Petition of Right
• Agreement in which the monarch must adhere to:
o Prohibition of taxation without consent of parliament
o No quartering of soldiers
o No martial law in times of peace
• Charles agreed and then reneged
o Refused to call Parliament together from 1629-1640
 Finally called Parliament (1640-1660) a.k.a. the long Parliament
o Long Parliament placed several restrictions on the monarch
 Abolition of arbitrary courts
 Cancellation on taxes not approved by Parliament
 Triennial Act-Parliament must meet once per three years

 English Civil War (1642-1651)
• New Model Army
o Radical Puritans who believed they were doing God’s Work
 Oliver Cromwell
o King Charles captured escaped captured
 Cromwell determined to secure victory
• Expelled Presbyterian members of Parliament
• Condemned Charles …beheaded on January 30, 1649
• Cromwell abolished the monarchy…created a commonwealth
o Created the role of Lord Protector
o Ruled with brutality
o Only those men who owned property could participate

o Charles II (1660-1685)
Restored Stuart Monarchy
Restored Anglican as the state religion
• Catholics and Protestants forced to conform
o James II (1685-1688)
Devout Catholic
o William and Mary
Protestants
Glorious Revolution
No bloodshed
Declaration of a Bill of Rights
• Petition the government
• Keep arms
• Jury trial
• GR viewed as the end of struggle between monarch and parliament

Russia
o Peter the Great (1689-1725)
He admired Western European technologies
Reorganized the army
• Conscription of peasants
Table of Ranks
Controlled the Russian Orthodox Church
Western customs became ubiquitous
• Men required to shave beards
• Women must remove veils
Modernized and Westernized Russia

France
o Louis XIV (1643-1715)
Expanded the court of Versailles
Known as the “Sun King”
• The source of light for all his people
Recentralized the government
“One king, one law, one faith”
• Edict of Fontainebleau (1685)
o Revoked the Edict of Nantes
o Protestants were not free to practice
Jean-Baptiste Colbert
• Finance minister
• Mercantilism- nation’s prosperity depended on its supply of gold and silver
o Active government participation
o Favorable balance of trade
• Capable of raising tremendous sums of money for the Treasury…which Louis XIV would deplete
o Four wars
Invasion of Spanish Netherlands
Dutch War
War of the League of Ausburg
War of Spanish Succession


Spain
o In the beginning of the seventeenth century, Spain had the most populous empire in the world.
Phillip II
• Bankrupt Spain due to excessive spending
Phillip III (1598-1621)
• Interested in court luxuries
• Nepotism
Phillip IV (1621-1665)
• Domestic reforms to curtail power of Catholic church

Enlightened Absolutism
o European rulers who embraced many of the philosophes' reforms, monarchical government dedicated to rational strengthening of central absolutist administration at cost of lesser political power centers
• Frederick II of Prussia
o aka, Frederick the Great
Well versed in Enlightenment thought
King was the , “first servant of the state”
Codified laws
• Limited freedom of speech
• Religious tolerance
Enlarged the army

• Catherine the Great of Russia (1762-1796)
o Questioned serfdom, use of torture and promoted equality before the law
o Pugachev’s Rebellion
Slave uprising in response to increased power of the nobility
Led to greater repression of peasantry
o Expanded Russian territory to Poland

• Joseph II of Austria
o Ended serfdom
Peasantry awarded hereditary land rights
o New legal code
Abrogated death penalty
Equality before the law
Religious toleration

Economics
The expansion of European commerce accelerated the growth of a worldwide economic network
• Market economy-the type, quantity and price of goods and services produced are determined in the marketplace by supply and demand
o David Ricardo and the iron law of wages: -market price of labor--wages that the laborers receive
natural price--minimum wages necessary for subsistence of a person when natural price is greater than market price, condition of worker is wretched

• Agricultural Revolution
o Characterized by:
 Increased food production
• More farmland
• Increased crop yields
• Healthier livestock
• Climate changes
o Abandon the open field system
 End of cooperative farms
 Crop rotation
 Restoration of soil
o Healthier, more numerous livestock
 Better diets
 More manure for fertilization

o Jethro Tull-Seed Drill

Enclosure Acts: laws passed in England to ensure that open fields can be broken up and fenced in.
• Forced many into wage laborers

• Changes in Industry
o Cottage industry
 a.k.a., putting out system
• capitalists brought goods ‘out’ to rural workers
 a family enterprise
o Increases consumers
 Consumer Revolution-The wide-ranging growth in consumption and new attitudes toward consumer goods that emerged in the cities of northwestern Europe in the second half of the eighteenth century.
o John Kay – Flying Shuttle
o Richard Arkwright- Water frame

• Methods of Finance
o Establishment of Public and Private banks
 Issue credit
 Governments could borrow huge sums of money
o Amsterdam became the economic center of Europe

The Enlightenment
o The Enlightenment was a time period was about obtaining the freedom to exercise your own intelligence.
o Characteristics-
 Rationalism:
reason is the arbiter of all things.
 Cosmology:
a new concept of man, his existence on earth, & the place of the earth in the universe.
 Secularism:
application of the methods of science to religion & philosophy.
 Scientific Method

Mathematical analysis
• Experimentation
• Inductive reasoning.
 Utilitarianism:
the greatest good for the greatest number.
 Tolerance:
No opinion is worth burning your neighbor for.
 Optimism & Self-Confidence

The belief that man is intrinsically good.
• The belief in social progress.
 Freedom

Of thought and expression.
• Bring liberty to all men (modern battle against absolutism).
 Education of the Masses

Legal Reforms
• Justice, kindness, and charity: no torture or indiscriminant incarceration.
• Due process of law.
 Constitutionalism

Written constitutions --> listing citizens, rights.
 Cosmopolitanism.

People
 John Locke
• Two Treatises of Government, 1690
• The individual must become a “rational creature.”
• Virtue can be learned and practiced.
• Human beings possess free will.
o they should be prepared for freedom.
o obedience should be out of conviction, not out of fear.
• Legislators owe their power to a contract
with the people.
• Neither kings nor wealth are divinely ordained.
• There are certain natural rights that are endowed by God to all human beings.
o life, liberty, property!
• He favored a republic as the best form of government.

 Adam Smith
• The Theory of Moral Sentiments and an Inquiry Into the Nature of Causes of the Wealth of Nations
o A vehement attack of the mercantilist system.
o Capitalist system
 Goods and services are produced for profitable exchange.
 LABOR IS THE SOURCE OF VALUE
 The “Invisible Hand” of the market
 Therefore, the basic market mechanism is self-regulating!
 Individuals seeking success are driven by self-interest: Profit Motive
 The Law of Supply and Demand
• Individuals who are free to pursue their self-interest will produce goods and services that others want, at prices others will be willing to pay.
 Government should interfere minimally with the free and efficient workings of the market
• Laissez faire: “Leave things alone.”

 Voltaire
• Candide, 1759
• Every man is guilty of all the good he didn’t do.
• God is a comedian playing to an audience too afraid to laugh.
• If God did not exist, it would be necessary to invent him.
• Men are equal; it is not birth, but virtue that makes the difference.
• “I may not agree with what you have to say, but I will defend to the death your right to say it.”

 Thomas Hobbes
• Leviathan
• Life is short, brutish, and harsh
• Needed a strong, absolute ruler (Machiavellian)

 The Baron de Montesquieu
• On the Spirit of Laws, 1758
• Three types of government:
o Monarchy.
o Republic.
o Despotism.
• A separation of political powers ensured freedom and liberty.

 Jean Jacques Rousseau
• The Social Contract, 1762.
• Virtue exists in the “state of nature,” but lost in “society.”
• Government must preserve “virtue” and “liberty.”
• Man is born free, yet everywhere he is in chains.
o The concept of the “Noble Savage.”
• Liberty, Equality, Fraternity.
o Civil liberty: invest ALL rights and liberties into a society.
• “General Will.”
• Rousseau’s thinking:

o Had a great influence on the French revolutionaries of 1789.

o His attacks on private property inspired the communists of the 19th century such as Karl Marx.

 Denis Diderot
• All things must be examined, debated, investigated without exception and without regard for anyone’s feelings.
• Encyclopédie

 Mary Wollstonecraft
• A Vindication of the Rights of Woman (1792)
• Advocated education for women, which would open the door for women’s participation in politics
• Believed marriage was legal prostitution unless women were given a rational education
• Argued for co-educational school model, but rich and poor ought to be separated by age 10


o
Spread of the Enlightenment

 Women played a big role in salon movement
 Organized by the upper classes, mainly women
 Marie-Therese Geoffrin, most influential and patron of Diderot’s Encyclopedia
 Madame de Stael later brought German romantic ideas into France in early 1800s
 Ideas also spread through coffeehouses, academies, lending libraries and the novel, and Masonic lodges.


The French Revolution & Napoleon (1789-1815)
o Causes of the French Revolution:
 Enlightenment philosophy
 American Revolution
 Social inequality – the “Ancien” (Old) Regime
 Economic crisis in France

The Four Stages of the French Revolution
1. Moderate Bourgeois Stage (1789-1793)
1st Constitution & Declaration of Rights
(National Assembly – Legislative Assembly)
o 1789: Louis XVI and the Estates- General
 Tennis Court Oath (June)
 The National Assembly
• Fall of the Bastille (July)
• The Great Fear
o Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen (August)
 Olympe de Gouges (1791)
o Women’s March on Versailles (October)
o 1790: Civil Constitution of the Clergy
o 1791: 1st French Constitution & the Legislative Assembly
o Royals flee!
o 1792: Brunswick Manifesto and the First Coalition
o September Massacres

2. Reign of Terror (1793-1794)
Radical & bloody phase under Maximilien Robespierre
(National Convention)
o 1792: the National Convention (Sept.) under Girondin rule
o 1793: execution of the king (Jan.)
o Committee of Public Safety (June)
 Robespierre, Danton, Marat
 Levee en Masse (August)
o Death of Marat (July)
 Charlotte Corday
o Robespierre’s Republic of Virtue and the Reign of Terror under Jacobin rule
 De-Christianization
 New Calendar
o Marie Antoinette executed (Oct.)
o 1794: Thermidorian Reaction (July)

3. Conservative Phase: Backlash against the Terror (1795-1799)
Attempts at stability & moderation
(The Directory)
o 1795: The Directory
 Corrupt
 Unstable
 Challenges from left and right
 Gives Napoleon command of French Army
 Victories abroad – returns a hero
o 1799: Brumaire Coup

4. Shifts back toward dictatorship (1799-1815)
Napoleon becomes consul (dictator), and later, emperor
(French Empire)
o Policies of Napoleon
 Concordat of 1801- the agreement between Pope Pius VII and Napoleon that healed the religious division in France by giving the French Catholics free practice of their religion and Napoleon political power
 Louisiana Purchase
 Napoleonic Code: the civil code put out by Napoleon that:
 granted equality of all male citizens before the law
 granted absolute security of wealth and private property
o Military Conquests
 Haitian revolt and independence by 1804
 Multinational coalitions against Napoleon
 The British and Horatio Nelson
• Trafalgar, 1805
 Continental System, 1806
 Napoleon's policy of preventing trade between Great Britain and continental Europe, intended to destroy Great Britain's economy…only hurt Europe
 Peninsular War, 1808-1813
 Horrors of War, Goya
 Invasion of Russia, 1812
 Battle of Leipzig, 1813
 Elba and escape: the Hundred Days, 1815
 Waterloo
Congress of Vienna
o The 5 “Great Powers” met to set up policies to achieve a lasting peace in post-Napoleonic Europe
o Prince Klemens von Metternich of Austria was the most influential & was very distrustful of democratic ideals of the French Rev.
o Restore a Balance of Power: no country would be a threat to others
o Forced to give up territories Napoleon took, but kept 1790 boundaries & overseas possessions, army & gov
o Containment of France: prevent future aggression by surrounding France w/ strong countries
o Legitimacy: Restore Europe’s families to thrones that had been driven out by Napoleon
o France: Louis XVIII ruled as a Constitutional Monarch
o Spain, Italy, Germany: rulers restored
o Concert of Europe – Principle of Intervention


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