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Sasha Thomas

on 5 June 2014

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Transcript of Developing

Robot companions
Personal assistants
in Artificial
Intelligence and

Robots at War: Scholars Debate the Ethical Issues

Algorithms are used as "ethical governors" that he says could one day guide an aerial drone or ground robot to either shoot or hold its fire in accordance with internationally agreed-upon rules of war.

Purpose of Empathic Robots
Socially Assistive Robots

- Socially intelligent robotics capable of exhibiting natural-appearing social qualities?

The system of an empathic robot functions on 2 main points: an affect detection system that recognizes whether the children are experiencing a positive or negative feeling, and an action selection mechanism that chooses the best empathic response to display at a certain moment. The main idea behind the empathic model is to allow the robot to establish an affective loop with the children, by recognizing their emotions and responding to them in an empathic way
Robots in War

Robotic Roles whose Interaction with Humans
Require a need for Empathetic Responses :
Therapist robot encouraging and monitoring
stroke patient during the rehabilitation therapy.

Lethal autonomous robots ethically superior than humans?
Georgia Tech professor, Ronald C. Arkin believes so.
The Role of Autonomy in Department of Defense Systems
The Bear, built by Vecna Technologies, was initially funded by the US Army and designed to scoop up injured soldiers from the battlefield, transporting them to a safe area where they could receive medical assistance.
TED Talk 2009 –
David Hanson: Robots that “show emotion”

This robot tracks faces and sound, perceives facial expressions, and mimics the user’s facial expressions. Our belief is that understanding human expressions can help to model human empathy and enable machine empathy.

What is empathy?
The capacity to recognize emotions that are being experienced by another sentient or fictional being

Blade Runner depicts one circumstance where androids have the capacity to display nearly authentic empathic responses. Some robots [Rachel Rosen] are programmed to have false memories. Her false memories are similar to a conscious experience resulting in having empathy.
Developing empathy in artificial intelligence
The EU-funded project EMOTE (EMbOdied-perceptive Tutors for Empathy-based learning) has recently started, and will continue until the end of 2015. The project aims to design, develop and evaluate a new generation of virtual and robotic embodied tutors that have perceptive capabilities to engage in empathic interactions with learners in a shared physical space.
Can we over come the Uncanny Effect robots create by designing them to be more like us?

Is it possible to create emotions such as empathy in artificial systems?

Why do some primary emotions occur prior to conscious awareness [i.e. animal/infant emotions]. (Picard, 1997)

What are the potential problems and limitations?

Why do some humans lack empathy such as Sociopaths/Psychopaths
How can Empathy be Measured?
Two common methods used to gauge and measure empathic responses:
The Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI)
The IRI consists of 4 scales each composed of 7 item sub scales
Empathetic Concern: feeling emotional concern for others(i.e., Feeling sympathy, compassion,warmth and concern)

Perspective Taking: cognativley taking perspective of another. It measures the tendency to spontaneously adopt the psychological point of view of others.

Fantasy: emotional identification with characters in books and films

Personal Distress: negative feelings in response to the distress of others. it measures the feelings of personal anxiety and unease in tense interpersonal settings.
The Barret Lennard Relationship Inventory
This method is used to measure empathy, regard and congruence.

It was originally intended to determine the qualities of therapist-patient relationships. It also assesses the warmth, honesty, and understanding experienced in the relationship by the patient.
How Can We Define Empathy?
The Living with Robots and Interactive Companions (LIREC) Project
Future Concepts to be Explored:
What we can conclude:
Can computers be programmed with an emotive function such as empathy ?

- Depends on your definition of "emotions".
Emotions are a program within a human robot (e.g. Brooks; Newton & Simon), therefore just a matter of adding program to artificial robots
- Emotions occur at more than just an operational level - they are a conscience experience, not a simulated behavior. Computers can never have emotions such as empathy because they can never be conscious.
Social Robots
The Roomba These cute little guys are warming their owners' hearts, paving the way for wider acceptance of autonomous robots living alongside humans. Larry D. Moore
How much do you love your vacuum cleaner? If yours happens to be a cute little Roomba, a new study suggests that you might like it a little bit too much . A Georgia Tech researcher has found that many Roomba owners name, dress up and genuinely worry about their Roombas, as if they were living pets.
Necessity of developing Empathy in Artificial Intelligence and Robots

In the first study, volunteers were shown videos of a small dinosaur robot being treated affectionately or violently. In the affectionate video, humans hugged and tickled the robot, and in the violent video, they hit or dropped him.

1. If humans feel Empathy for Robots
Humans want to interact with robots

2. Establish humanized man-machine interface
Improve the efficiency of thought
Give a robot Flexibility in behavior
Give a robot creativity in thought
Make robots can participate in social affairs

Leite I, Castellano G, Pereira A, Martinho C, Paiva A. 2012. Modelling empathic behaviour in a robotic game companion for children: an ethnographic study in real-world settings.
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