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Transcript of Chapter 8:
A child's self-concept is their belief about how worthwhile they are. Self-concept is how the child sees them self. It is made up of a sense of belonging and being accepted, a sense of being good, and a sense of being capable of doing things well.
As young children gain more understanding of the social environment, their temperaments ripen into true personalities. At the same time, their self-concepts become more complex, allowing them to exercise greater control over their own behavior
Categorical Self: The early self-concepts are highly concrete. A preschool child tends to focus on her own visible characteristics. It seems that the categorical self is an internal working model for social relationships, as for the self.
Gender - Schema Theory
The gender-schema theory refers to a theory that states children learn what it means to be male and female.
They learn gender and roles based on their culture.
It teaches children to fit into what it considered normal and what is expected in their culture.
The Gender Concept
When we hear gender, what should come to mind is male or female.
Most children can identify themselves or another person as male or female by age 2.
Gender identity is having the knowledge to label an individual as a male or female.
Gender Stability is the understanding that gender is a stable, lifelong characteristic.
Sex –Typed Behaviour
- Sex-typed behaviour- different patterns of behaviour exhibited by boys and girls
- By the age of 18 – 24 months children show preference for sex-stereotyped toys before they even identify their own gender
- Boy-boy interactions and girl-girl interactions differ in quality
- In same sex interactions there seems to be an older role model that directs a younger ‘student’ (ex. Older boys teach younger boys to be masculine and older girls teach younger girls to be feminine)
- Girls use enabling to interact with each other while boys use a restrictive style (visable at pre-school age)
Personality and Self-Concept & Gender Development
Temperament to Personality
Children with difficult temperaments learn that the behaviors associated with difficulty, such as complaining, often result in peer rejection. As a result, some change their behaviors to gain social acceptance.
Explaining Gender Concept &
Social cognitive Explanations
Parents play the biggest role in a child’s life shaping a child’s sex-role behavior.
Sex-role behaviors are the patterns you do in your every day life that distinguishes you between male and female, supposedly.
When you’re a child, whether boy or girl, you’re given specific gender-based toys to play with, generally.
When mothers connect with their children, they speak differently to both genders. Also the mother was more conversational and more likely to have more contact with a daughter, than a son.
A father usually tends to have more of a father- son bond. Usually in this relationship, the father is more playful than conversational.
Sex Role Knowledge
- At a young age children have a perception of what is right and what is wrong for each gender (stereotyped ideas) (ex. Girls play with dolls while boys play with dinkies)
- Children by the age of 2 learn these roles by what they see (ex. Mom wears makeup and feeds the baby)
- At age 3&4 children assign stereotypic occupations, toys and activities to each gender
- At age 5 children associate different personality traits (ex. Assertiveness/ nurturance) with males and females
Parents can moderate the risks associated with a difficult temperament by helping these children learn to regulate their emotions and behavior more effectively. Infant temperament doesn’t necessarily dictate the kind of personality the child will develop
The transition from temperament to personality is also influenced by parental response to the young child's temperament.
18-24 month-old is beginning to develop categorical and emotional selves. Between 2 and 6 years, the child continues to develop these two aspects of the self and adds them to a social self
Gender differences also begin to appear in self-concept during the preschool years
Emotional Self: Preschoolers who display high levels of emotional regulation are more popular with their peer, than with those who are less able to regulate their emotional behavior. Emotional regulation in early childhood is related to children's ability to obey moral rules and to think about right and wrong. Another aspect of emotional self is empathy. The more advanced preschoolers capacity for empathy is, the less aggression they display. Young children who do not have trusting relationships with their parents are at risk of failing to develop moral emotions or of developing feelings of guilt, shame, and pride.
The biological approach looks at our genetics to build a reason as to why we act the way we do and why we develop abnormal behaviors.
It looks at your genes and inheritance, rather than just the environment we life in, which is important because we inherit certain things from our parents.
Hormones will play a significant role in your gender development throughout your life.
Social self: Children are beginning to increase awareness of themselves as a player in the social game. The children start to understand their place in the network of family roles. For example: A young student learns the student role from his teacher, who orders him to do thing like organize books, help others, or get out materials and put them away at the right time. He then becomes no longer dependent on the teacher to tell him what to do.
- When communicating with opposite sexes, girls tend to ask questions or make requests while boys make demands, which is why they avoid each other
- Cross gender behaviour- behaviour that is atypical for one’s own sex but typical for the opposite sex
- More common for girls than boys
- Adults tend to discourage boys from participating in cross gender behaviour
- Sex-typed behaviour is part of a complex process of identity development and not just the result of cultural modelling and reinforcement