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Bone Cancer

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by

Rani Mani

on 2 December 2014

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Transcript of Bone Cancer

How is bone cancer diagnosed?
A patient's systems, physical exam, and results of imaging tests, and blood tests may suggest that bone cancer is present. Although is most cases, doctors must confirm this by examining a tissue or a cell sample under a microscope (a procedure known as biopsy).
An x ray
Bone scan
Computerized tomography(CT)
What is cancer?
Cancer is a disease related to the uncontrolled and rapid reproduction of cells through the process of cell division. Cancerous cells continue to reproduce. The result is a TUMOUR, a mass of cells that are continually reproducing but are otherwise non-functional.
Common types of bone cancer
Bone cancers are classified into seperate types based on the type of cell where the cancer began. The most common types of bone cancer include:
Osteosarcoma
Chondrosarcoma
Ewing Sarcoma
Stages of bone cancer include:
Stage 1

Stage 2

Stage 3

Stage 4
Causes
There is no real exact clarification for what causes most bone cancer. Doctor do know bone cancer begins as an error in an cell's DNA. The error tells the cell to grow and divide in an uncontrolled way. The a big chunk of mutated cells form a mass (tumor) that can invade nearby structures or spread to other areas of the body.
Receiving large amounts of radiation
Having a history of paget's disease in the one's family
Having a relative or blood-related family member that had/has bone cancer
People who have mental implants are more likely to receive osteosarcoma
Symptoms
There are many symptoms for bone cancer and they include:
Bone pain
Swelling near the affected area
Fractured bones
Weaken bones
Easily broken bones
Fatigue (Extreme tiredness)
Unintended weight loss
Anemia
Fever or chills (rare)
A lump may been felt in that infected area
Bone Cancer
What is bone cancer?
Bone cancer is an uncommon cancer that begins in a bone. It is a cancerous tumor in the bone that damages bone tissue. Bone cancer can begin in any bone in the body, but it most commonly effects the long bones(are hard, dense bones that provide strength, structure, and mobility) of arms and legs.
By: Marvatha.K
Osteosarcoma
Osteosarcoma begins in the bone cells. Osteosarcoma occurs most often in children and young adults. Is formed by the osteoid tissue of a bone. Causes constant bone pain and swelling.
Chondrosarcoma
Chondrasarcoma begins in the cartilage cells that are commonly found on the ends of bones. Chondrasarcoma most commonly affects older adults. Causes continuous pain, swelling and pressure on damaged bones.
Ewing Sarcoma
It's not clear where Ewing's sarcoma in the bone begins. It is believed that Ewing's sarcoma may begin in a nerve tissue within the bone. It weakens the bone, cause swelling in the bone, causes pain in the bone, etc. Ewing's sarcoma most often occurs in children and young adults.
Stage 1
At this stage, bone cancer is limited to the bone and has not spread to other areas of the body. After biopsy testing, cancer at this stage is considered low risk and not aggressive.
Stage 2
This stage of the bone cancer is limited to the bone and hasn't spread to other areas of the body. Although biopsy testing reveals the bone cancer is high grade and cosidered aggresive.
Stage 3
At this stage, bone cancer occurs in two or more places on the same bone. Biopsy testing shows this bone cancer is either low grade or high grade.
Stage 4
This stage of bone cancer indicates that cancer has spread beyond the bone to other areas of the body, such as the brain, liver or lungs. This stage is high grade and considered aggressive.
X-rays
The bone of the cancer may appear broken instead of solid. The cancer can also appear as a hole in the bone. Some doctors can see a tumor extended to nearby tissues.
Computed Tomography (CT) Scans
The CT scan is an x-ray procedure that produces details.
Treatment
Treatment mainly depends on the type, size, location, general health, and stage of cancer.
Treatments include:
Surgery
Chemotherapy
Radiotherapy
Surgery
Surgery is the usual main treatment for bone cancer. Can remove a large amount or all of the bone cancer cells in a body.
Types of Bone Surgery include:
Amputation: The whole area of the tumor is removed in surgery.
Limb-Salvage Surgery: The bone cancer cells are removed with a small amount of it's surrounding healthy tissue.
Curettage: Scrapes out cancer cells and does not remove a whole area of the bone

Chemotherapy
Chemotherapy is the use of medication to treat cancers. Is an anti-cancer drugs to kill the cancer and from dividing and growing. In the other hand, it can effect healthy cells producing side effects like:
Loss of hair
Loss of appetite
Vomiting
Mouth sores
Loss of blood cells

Radiotherapy
Radiation therapy is the use of high energy x-ray (radiation) to kill cancer. It destroys their ability to reproduce by damaging their DNA. However it can harm healthy body parts within the area, because of the large amount of radiation used. It may even create new tumors/ cancer cells if the strong radiation is not handled properly.
Bibliography
www.cancer.gov/
www.cancer.net/cancer-types/bone-cancer/
www.cancer.org/cancer/bonecancer/
www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/bone-cancer/basics/definition/con-20028192
Awareness
People usually help support bone cancer by buying
mini products to help raise money to send to the
bone cancer research foundation to help find a cure
for bone cancer. Bone cancer awareness month is
on July. The bone cancer ribbon is bright yellow.
Full transcript