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Transcript of Psychoanalysis
This school of thought is very different from the others. It studies psychopathology, or abnormal behavior. Its method is the clinical observation of the unconscious.
Sigmund Freud organized information that already existed in the areas of medicine and philosophy, he integrated this knowledge and came up with a method of clinical analysis that cured symptoms and mental illness.
In 1995 Freud goes to Paris to study with a French psychiatrist named Charcot who was trying to cure hysteria by the use of hypnosis. Freud continued his studies of hysteria and stated that there was no organic cause for the symptoms, they were pscyhogenic. He said that the symptoms tried to hide memories that had great emotional content. He later called them repressed memories.
In free association, psychoanalytic patients are invited to relate whatever comes into their minds during the analytic session, and not to censor their thoughts. This technique is intended to help the patient learn more about what he or she thinks and feels, in an atmosphere of non-judgmental curiosity and acceptance.
He beilieved dreams were a rich source of emotional meaning that had the key for finding the causes of the symptoms presented by the patient.
ways to the subconscious
Organization of the
The conscious mind
includes everything that we are aware of. This is the aspect of our mental processing that we can think and talk about rationally. A part of this includes our memory, which is not always part of consciousness but can be retrieved easily at any time and brought into our awareness. Freud called this ordinary memory the
The unconscious mind
is a reservoir of feelings, thoughts, urges, and memories that are outside of our conscious awareness. Most of the contents of the unconscious are unacceptable or unpleasant, such as feelings of pain, anxiety, or conflict. According to Freud, the unconscious continues to influence our behavior and experience, even though we are unaware of these underlying influences.
A lapsus (lapse, slip, error) is an involuntary mistake made while writing or speaking. According to Freud's early psychoanalytic theory, a lapsus represents a missed deed that hides an unconscious desire.
The id is the only component of personality that is present from birth. This aspect of personality is entirely unconscious and includes the instinctive and primitive behaviors. According to Freud, the id is the source of all psychic energy, making it the primary component of personality.
The ego is the component of personality that is responsible for dealing with reality. According to Freud, the ego develops from the id and ensures that the impulses of the id can be expressed in a manner acceptable in the real world. The ego functions in both the conscious, preconscious, and unconscious mind.
The last component of personality to develop is the superego. The superego is the aspect of personality that holds all of our internalized moral standards and ideals that we acquire from both parents and society--our sense of right and wrong. The superego provides guidelines for making judgments. According to Freud, the superego begins to emerge at around age five.
Mechanisms found in the ego which are unconscious. We use them to protect ourselves from anxiety and mental pain. The most common one is repression, its job is to keep some thoughts from being conscious because they could cause us extreme anxiety.
Freud's theory of psychosexual development is one of the best known, but also one of the most controversial. Freud believed that personality develops through a series of childhood stages during which the pleasure-seeking energies of the id become focused on certain erogenous areas. This psychosexual energy, or libido, was described as the driving force behind behavior.
A selfish, primitive, childish, pleasure-oriented part of the personality with no ability to delay gratification.
Internalized societal and parental standards of "good" and "bad", "right" and "wrong" behaviour.
The moderator between the id and superego which seeks compromises to pacify both. It can be viewed as our "sense of time and place"
Theory of Psychosexual Development
Freud thought that
The Oral Stage
In the first few years of life boys and girls have similar experiences.
The anus becomes the sources of erotic pleasure.
The Anal Stage
1 1/2-3 years
Children discover the pleasure they get from their genitals.
The Phallic Stage
Sexual desires are pushed to the background, and children explore the world and learn new skills.
The Latency Stage
The Genital Stage
There are stages where the child fixates on a specific body part – the psychic energy focuses
humans basically have what he called an instinctual
He also thought that:
Libido = sex drive
infants, from birth, have a sex drive; we have an
Anxiety or Trauma
problems, neuroses, anxieties
Axiety or Trauma:
It's the child's first experience of not getting what he/she wants.
First conflict: taking the breast away (weaning the child from nursing).
Key experience: breastfeeding and sucking
Driven by the ID
constantly nursed --- perhaps over-nursed = trusting and gullible personalities kids that don't want to grow up.
Main lesson: delayed gratification (have to hold it in until it's safe to go to the toilet) Developing this control leads to a sense of accomplishment and independence.
The child may also purposefully attempt to back up their digestive system as a way of depriving the parents, which leads to "anal retentive" personality: stringent, orderly, rigid and obsessive.
the child sees this stage as a way of either being proud of "creations," which leads to "anal expulsive" personality:messy, wasteful or destructive personality.
Key experience: toilet training
Driven by the ID and the Ego coming slowly
Main Lesson :Identification with the aggressor
The boy takes on all his fathers values and moral principles. The girls identifies with the mother and internalizes the mother's moral code
Boys: Oedipus Complex
Girls: Electra Complex
Driven by: ID and Ego,
The child becomes a rival for the attention of the parent of the opposite sex. These are unconscious processes.
They become extremely aware of the differences between them and the opposite sex.
Hostile or jealous feelings toward the parent of the same sex.
Psychosexual stages help develop the id, ego and superego
Oral fixation=need to have something in the mouth (smoking, nail biting, overeating, alcoholism)
Anxiety or Trauma:
stop nursing early = suspicious, manipulative, untrustworthy or sarcastic attitudes,
Envious, jealous, aggressive
Anxiety or trauma:
This stage is important in the development of social and communication skills and self-confidence.
The development of the ego and superego contribute to this period of calm.
Main Lesson: Sublimination
process of redirecting sexual impulses into learning/productive tasks.
Driven by: ID, Ego, and Superego (still developing)
Key experience: becoming more concerned with peer relationships, hobbies and other interests,
Ideally the person derives much satisfaction from giving pleasure as from receiving it.
If the other stages have been completed successfully, the individual should now be well-balanced, warm and caring.
The goal of this stage is to establish a balance between the various life areas.
Key experience: social and sexual relationships with others
Anxieties or traumas from previous stages will dictate how the person will interact with others
Anxiety or trauma:
Main lesson: no lesson, personality is fully developed
Driven by: id, ego and superego as developed as they will ever get
Activity: Case Studies
Caroline is 22 years old. She is studying at university and her roommate complains that she is extremely messy. Caroline goes out every weekend to party, and she always brings a (different) man home. Caroline is described as kind and sweet, if a little ‘sleazy’ by her friends. Caroline has been sent to you because she has started failing her assignments, and the university is concerned that she may be suffering from a psychological problem that is causing her poor results. When asked why she is failing, she replies that none of her tutors care if she passes, and no one else tries, so why should she.
Joseph is described as logical and practical. His girlfriend Suzy often complains that he is never spontaneous, and needs to plan everything in advance. Joseph has smoked cigarettes since he was 17 years old. Recently, he has started drinking a lot. Suzy has come to you worried that that he is becoming an alcoholic. She is also upset because Joseph has started being aggressive towards her, especially when he has a bad day at work.
Jerry is described as funny and outgoing. People generally like to go out with him; however he often pushes away his close friends by being demanding and bad-tempered. He has been told by his friends that he is childish. Jerry has very brief relationships with women, which usually end when he becomes excessively jealous. He tries to control what his girlfriend’s wear and who they see. Jerry has come to see you because he is feeling depressed due to his lack of close friends.
Isabelle is a school teacher. She is very strict with her students and does not have many friends at work or in her personal life. Isabelle keeps her work area neat, and tends to become grumpy when other teachers leave the staffroom messy. She often feels guilty when her students do not perform well. Other teachers become frustrated with her because, even when her students perform very well, she complains and never feels proud. Isabelle refuses to break the rules for any situation, and sticks strongly to the school policies and the law. When in therapy, if you ask her specific questions such as “did you enjoy going to the park?” she is able to respond yes; however when you ask her to describe growing up with her family she just shrugs and responds that she doesn’t really remember.
Determine if your patients have a trauma, and the stage in which it occurred. Explain your answers.