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Classroom Management: Building the Foundation
Transcript of Classroom Management: Building the Foundation
Chapter 2 Skinner Redl
Wattenberg Gordon Glasser "an understanding of the key concepts
of a variety of classroom management
theorists will help you develop your own
philosophy and techniques of classroom
management." "No one model will provide all the answers
that educators need to manage a classroom
effectively and to provide a safe
school enviroment. "knowledge of these theories allows
effective educators to build a management style that combines proactive and reactive elements and that melds instruction and classroom management into a unique, effective style." Operant Conditioning "Proper immediate reinforcement strengthens the likelihood that appropriate behavior will be repeated" Form of learning in which a response increases in frequency as a result of being followed by reinforcement. (Ormrod, G-5)
also call behavior modification Positive Reinforcement consequence that brings about the increase of a behavior through the presentation (rather that the removal) of a stimulus. (ormrod, G-6) Rewards Routines Using Skinners theory in the classroom requires teachers to ensure students understand what is to be expected of them. Developing routines, rules, and goals that students are expected to follow will promote a safe enviroment. Critiques skinner believed in reinforcing the positive behaviors. Rewarding students for following the rules or expectations promotes these students to continue positive behaviors. By only aknowledging or rewarding positive behaviors, those undesirable behaviors will stop or decrease. Some theorist believe that "rewards are counterproductive because they are extrinsic rather than internal motivations." Students learn to do the right thing only if they recieve the extrinsic reward. Then there are those theorist that believe in punishment as an effective tool in behavior management and not just positive reinforcement. "most students want to behave appropriately, but they sometimes need help controlling their actions" Group Dynamics Supporting Self-Control Reality Appraisal Pleasure-Pain Principle Situational Assistance Critiques Roles "Group Life in the Classroom"
individual behavior affects group behavior, and vice versa differences occur in the behavior of a student as an individual and the behavior of the same student as a member of a group when a teacher steps in to help a student regain self-control that could be lost due to forgetting rules, uncertain about the rules, bored, or are just tired of sitting. Within Groups individuals assume roles such as leader, clown, entertainer, fall guy, blame taker, and instigator contagious behavior also occurs within these roles, like scapegoating, blaming a weak/unliked individual, teasing, tensions, negative reactions, and group disintegration the belief that individuals control their own conduct and that much misbehavior results from a temporary lapse of an individual's control system rather than from a motivation to be disagreeable deciding whether actions are guided by intelligence and conscience or by fear or prejudice deliberate experiences to produce pleasant to unpleasant feelings A perceptive teacher is aware of the functioning of the class as a whole group and its smaller groups within some cultural groups may not respond to some of the techniques used in supporting self-control or other classroom management techniques some teachers can spot the problem areas but do not always have the skills to manage or assist the problems Choice Theory "students have specific human needs and motives and should accept responsibility for their behavior" "helping people look to present conditions to find solutions to problems" only person whose behavior we can control is our own, and each person makes his own choices in everything they do, External Control destroys human relationships and prevent individuals from getting along with each other Meet Needs belong freedom power survival fun or get misbehaviors Quality Schools helps students satisfy one or more psychological needs and adds quality to students' lives "Education is the process through which we discover that learning adds quality to our lives" Critique cutural and gender diversities do not allow for choice making or freedom Some believe that it is too hard or time consuming to switch from operant conditioning/stimulus-response theories/behavior modification there must be a closeness in relationship between the parents and teachers with the student in order to change misbehaviors "Who owns the Problem?" Discipline as Self-Control Problem Ownership Empathetic Understanding Active Listening I-Message problem rests with student, and they will have to accept responsibility for changing their behavior learn about individual students and each ones's specific needs, interest, and abilities teachers express how they feel about the behavior or how it effects them Six Step Process Enviroment Winning vs Losing Self-Discipline discipline in the form of punishment produces misbehaviors, instead teach and nurture discipline so students know how to control themselves Use less rewards and punishments in order to not cause peer statuses that put students at higher or lower levels, causing misbehaviors in the classroom. create enviroments that allow students to be motivated and involved in the learning process Critiques Teachers have always relied on rewards and you-statements, change to decades old practices is difficult responsibility for disciplines lies within the student who has to accept responsibility for changing their behavior teachers genuinely hear and understand the comments, concerns, and behaviors of students define the problem
generate possible solutions
evaluate the solutions
decide the best solution
determine how to implement solution
assess how well it solved the problem difficult to implement theories to severe behavior that does provide time to think solutions through