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Transcript of First Quarter
Copernicus- (mid 1500s) challenged the belief that earth was the center of the universe.
Heliocentric (sun centered)
Causes: (Why it started)
Fall of Roman Empire
Lack of unifying government in western Europe.
Political and social systems emerged:
Feudalism and Manorialism .
Christian Church all powerful and controlling
Little or no scientific discovery.
Causes: why it ended
Period in the 1500s and 1600s in which scientific thinkers
challenged traditional ideas and relied on
observation rather than on past authorities.
(ex. the Church)
500 ce to 1400 ce
Galileo- (early 1600s) further proved the Heliocentric Theory by using a telescope.
- Angered the church and was threatened with death. (forced to take back his ideas)
Netwon: (1600s) Discovers Law of Gravity
Used knowledge founded by Copernicus and Galileo.
Used Mathematics to prove existence of a force that made objects fall towards earth and kept planets orbiting around the sun.
Nature follows uniform laws.
The Scientific Method
A new approach to science emerged in the 1600s.
It relied on experimentation and observation rather than past authorities.
During the Scientific Revolution, scientists used reason to explain
why things happen in the universe. Its success made the world believe
in the power of reason.
By the early 1700s writers thought to use reason to discover natural laws.
Leading to the Age of Enlightenment. By applying the scientific method,
enlightenment writers felt they could solve problems of society.
The Age of Enlightenment
Because enlightenment writers felt reason and logic could lead to an ultimate truth it changed the way people viewed:
Important Enlightenment Writers
People are greedy and selfish.
Only a powerful government create a peaceful, orderly society.
Security vs. freedom
People are born with natural rights. It is the governments job to protect them.
If the government does not protect natural rights, the people have the right to overthrow it.
Believed powers of government should be separated in to three branches. (Separation of Powers)
Freedom of Speech
In a perfect society people would both make the laws and obey them. (Whole above self.)
The enlightenment writers changed the world. During the 1700s great numbers of people began to question long established beliefs and customs. Leading the way to social and political revolutions.
Late 1600s - 1700s
Absolute monarchies that accepted enlightenment thought and changed their societies.
Austrian ruler implemented several reforms:
Forced nobles to pay taxes
Education- made available to all children.
Maria Theresa son
Most Radical enlightenment reformer.
Choose government officials for talents rather than family or status.
(Later many of his reforms were overturned.)
Political Revolution caused by the enlightenment.
Catherine the Great
embraced enlightenment, even corresponded with Voltaire and Montesquieu.
Asked advice from : nobles, free peasants, and townspeople.
Russian Citizens for the first time had a say in government.
She built schools and hospitals
Promoted education of women
Supported religious tolerances.
Most reforms were short live. (War, rebellion, and her successors.)
Influence in British Traditions
Magna Carta - Creates
(system of checks and balances.)
English Bill of Rights
Impact on the world
US becomes symbol of freedom through world
The US Constitution- creates a republic, other countries will copy ideas in it.
The success of defeating Britain would inspire other people to try to overthrow their
The French Revolution
: French citizens had no say in government.
Three different Classes ( Little or no social mobility)
The First Estate
Roman Catholic Clergy
1% of the population
owned 10% of the land
Didn't pay taxes
The Second Estate
2% of population
owned 20% of the land
didn't pay taxes
The Third Estate
The Bourgeoisie(educated middle class and leaders of the revolution)
poor city workers
97% of the population
Owned 70% of the land
only group to pay taxes.
King Louis the xvI - spent money on lavish things and helped pay for the America revolution.
This put France on the brink of bankruptcy.
King need to raise taxes.
In 1789 bad harvest caused food prices to rise.
Books of the enlightenment
English and America Examples:
The America Revolution inspired and angered the French.
Causes of French Revolution
King Louis the XVI
Called for The Estates General
Tennis Court Oath
Storming the Bastille
July 14th 1789
The Revolution begins
National Assembly takes control.
Declaration of the Rights of Man
All men were now created equal
freedom of religion
no more estates
A Constitution is created by the National Assembly (Limited Monarchy)
The war with the other European nations goes badly. This opens the door for a
group called the Jacobins to take control of the National Assembly.
By early 1792 the rest of the European Monarchies were nervous the revolution could spread to their countries. They began to threaten France with military force if they didn't put King Louis back in power.
In reaction to this France declared war on Austria, Prussia, Great Britain and several other states. They hoped it would spread the revolution and its ideas.
The Jacobins slogan was "Liberty, Equality and Fraternity
The Jacobins wanted extreme change. (Republic)
France go to total war and begins to defend enemies under Jacobin rule.
1793 the kill King Louis by guillotine.
This starts the Reign of Terror
The 3rd Estate promised not to leave the tennis court until a constitution was created.
The Estates General was a meeting where all three Estates met together to resolve conflict.
This was to keep France out of Bankruptcy.
However it was unfair because each Estate received only one vote.
3% of the population could out vote 97 %
Political Prison- released prisoners told king he no longer had absolute power.
To obtain guns in the prison.
The Jacobins were lead by Maximillien Robespierre
Tens of thousand were killed.
anyone against the republic or loyal to the monarchy
The Reign of Terror ends when the mobs of Paris turn on Robespierre and behead him.
Moderates return to power.
A group of 5 men take control of France. They were called the Directory (oligarchy)
weak and inefficient
This lead to the rise of Napoleon
Napoleon's Bonaparte Reign
Became popular in France by winning battles against the British and Austrians.
Takes over France in a
or revolt by military leader.
Three years later he took the title of Emperor.
The people didn't care, they supported him because he brought back stability to France, with a
strong central government.
Other improvements Napoleon made to France:
Economy: Created bank of France and improved economy
Education: public school for all
Napoleonic Code : Legal code based on enlightenment thought;
all men are created equal
spread across Europe as he conquered
He tries to conquer all of Europe.
Between 1804 - 1814 he almost accomplishes his goal. He takes over or controlled everything in Europe except Great Britain and Russia.
Great Britain is protected by its Navy
Russia was protected by its climate
"scorched earth" policy (1812-1813)
The following year an alliance of Russia, Great Britain, Austria and Prussia defeated Napoleon.
Napoleon returned to power in 1814, but was defeated by Prussia and Britain at the battle of Waterloo. Napoleon live the rest of his life in exile.
Impact of Napoleon's Reign
Spread the ideas of Democracy across Europe. (Napoleonic Code)
Sparked Nationalism in Europe
Influenced both Italy and Germany to unite
Weakened Spain Help lead to Latin America Independence Movements.
Independence Movements in Latin American
Reasons for independence :
Read books of Enlightenment
Inspired by American and French Revolutions
Unequal Social Structure
Ruled themselves when France invaded Spain.
I. The Spanish introduced crops & tools which made agriculture better & easier.
1. This was a large scale agricultural system known as Encomienda System.
A. They were growing cash crops.
2. The Spanish settlers controlled the land & people who lived under the system.
A. Because Spain was such a big part of the Counter-Reformation (the movement to stop the spread of Protestantism), they saw this as an opportunity to spread the Catholic Faith.
II. The Catholic Church
B. They said they were trying to protect the native Indians from total destruction.
C. They also were trying to convert them.
D. The Catholic Church is the most important social institution in Latin America today.
1. He led the independence drive in Haiti in 1791.
2. Haiti became the first independent country in Latin America in 1804
A. Toussaint L’Ouverture
1. He was known as “the Liberator”
2. He is considered to be the greatest nationalistic leader of this period.
3. He unified Latin America in 1819 when he led a successful revolt against Spain.
B. Simon Bolivar
4. He was named the president of Gran Colombia
A. Today this is the countries of Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador & Panama.
1. San Martin was a professional soldier who won independence for Argentina in 1816.
2. O’Higgins was a general from Chile who joined with San Martin to get rid of the Spanish from Chile in 1818.
Jose De San Martin & Bernardo O’Higgins
1. Both of these men were Catholic priests who promised an end to slavery in Mexico.
2. The Spanish executed both of them in the hopes that the revolution would end.
A. It only got stronger
3. Mexico declared their independence in 1821.
D. Father Miguel Hidalgo & Father Jose Morelos
Most of Latin America had gained their independence by 1825.
Was a former Slave and self-educated himself.
Read books of enlightenment and wanted to lead his people to liberty and does..
Haiti was a French farming Colony (Sugar Plantations)
Nearly 1/2 million african slaves.
Wanted to create a United Latin American State but failed.
Latin American divided into a number of separate countries
Europe after the Napoleon
Congress of Vienna
After Napoleon defeat diplomats met in Vienna in 1815 to devise a peace settlement.
Prince Klemens von Metternich
dominated the meetings.
He wanted to restore Europe to the way it was before revolution.
create stability in Europe and repress
Create a balance of power in Europe to prevent war.
Add Belgium and Luxembourg to Holland and created Netherlands
Give Prussia land along Rhine River
Allowed Austria to take control of Italy again.
Keep peace for nearly 100 years
Revolutions of 1830
France gained Constitutional Monarchy
Greece and Belgium gained Independence.
In Italy, Germany and Poland revolutions were defeated.
Revolutions of 1848
France became a republic
Austrian Empire- student and worker revolt put down by army.
Absolutism in Czarist Russia
Russia barely changes during the 1800s the ideals of the French Revolution are kept from people.
They are stuck in a feudal Society.
Serfs existed until 1861
1861 Russia lost Crimean War to the Ottomans. ( Trying to gain land) This showed Russia they need to Modernize. First step free Serfs.
They had to buy freedom- moved to cities.
Became leaders of future revolution
To the Baltic Sea
To the Black Sea
Into Eastern Europe
Occupying much of Poland.
Russification - Everyone to speak Russian, practice Russian culture and one religion( The Russian Orthodox Church)
Alexander the III
Persecuted non-Russians Poles, Ukrainians and Armenians.
against the Jews
Instability in Latin America
By the early 1800s Spanish rule was removed from Latin America.
Life did not improve for most people.
Geography- prevented Latin America from uniting (Regionalism)
Social Injustice- Nothing Changes; Creoles replace Peninsulares as ruling class.
Rich remained rich, poor remained poor
Military rule (Caudillos)- no democracies
Power of Catholic Church- Church didn't want change, they wanted to keep power.
The Mexican Revolution 1910 - 1930
Porfirio Dais- Mexico Dictator
Helped Mexico advance; railways and industry
Only a few upper class and foreign investors really benefited from it.
Most Mexicans were uneducated landless and poor.
This boiled over and revolution started.
- Most famous revolutionary leader. Lead revolt in the south
called for land reform
- Rebel leader in the North
Effects of Revolution
Constitution of 1917-
More rights to workers and women.
Some Social and economic reforms
Indians communities given opportunities to regain land.
Cultural Nationalism- Latin Americas started taking pride in themselves and their history. (Aztec art)
Unification of Italy
Nationalism- prides in ones country
The feeling of Nationalism help Napoleon Conquer most of Europe.
Nationalism also inspired people to rise up against Napoleon and free their countries.
However after Napoleon and the French were defeated, the Feeling doesn't leave Europe and leads to many revolutions and uprisings.
After the fall of the Roman Empire in the 400s Italy had been divided into many small states. Napoleon reunited Italy but the congress of Vienna redivided it. Putting much of it under Austria or Spanish rule.
B. There were many leaders of Italian nationalism
1. Giuseppe Mazzini
a. He is the “soul” of Italian unification.
b. He formed “Young Italy” in 1831.
- it was designed to remove Austrian control.
- He wanted to establish an Italian republic.
2. Count Camillo Cavour
He is the “brain” of Italian unification
In 1852, he was elected Prime Minister of Sardinia-Piedmont
- This was the center of the unification movement.
He formed an alliance with France and Prussia to force Austria out.
3. Giuseppe Garibaldi
He is the “sword” of Italian unification
He organized an army called the “Red Shirts."
They led a rebellion in the Kingdom of the two Sicilies in 1860.
He encouraged the people of Sicily to unite with Sardinia-Piedmont
He joined with Cavour to take control of most of the Papal States, the Church owned land in central Italy.
The Kingdom of Italy was announced in 1861.
King Victor Emmanuel II was its limited monarch.
D. In 1870, Italian troops took control of Rome and claimed it as their capital.
E. Although unification was complete, feelings of nationalism continued to grow.
Classical Roman and Greek Cultural ->->-> Middle Ages (Medieval) ->->-> Renaissance
Unification Movement in Germany
Into the early 1800's German speaking people lived in small city states to which they felt loyalty.
This changed with Napoleons occupation of these city states. With the goal of removing France the German people began to ban together. This sparked Nationalism.
At the end of the Napoleonic Wars some Nationalist called for a united Germany. However Metternich stopped the idea in the Congress of Vienna.
The rise of Prussia
Prussia is a Germany city state.
During the 1830's Prussia setup a trade union among the German states. This ended trade barriers between the states.
Prussia emerges as the leader of the German states.
In 1862 a man by the name of Otto von Bismarck was appointed chancellor of Prussia.
His goal to Unite Germany under the rule of King Wilhelm the I
Blood and Iron
- Bismark had no faith in speeches or representative government.
Instead he felt Germany could only be reunited by war.
Danish War(1864)- Prussia allied with Austria to take land from Denmark.
Austro-Prussian War (seven Week War(1866)- Prussia turned on Austria to united the Northern German states in a Confederation.
Franco-Prussian War- (1870) Bismark used Nationalism to spark with France. Prussia defeated France easily, uniting the southern German states with Prussia.
1871 German states unite to create Germany under the rule of Kaiser Wilhelm the I.
Nationalism rages throughout the world
Zionism- (Jewish Nationalism) a call for a Jewish homeland in Palestine. It was founded by Theodor Herzl a Jew living in France.
It was in reaction to
throughout Europe. (Pogroms)
Nationalism is sparked against the British East India Company.
1885 The Indian National Congress is Created.
1906- Muslim League is Created .
During the 1800s the Ottoman Europe still ruled much of the area.
However ethnic groups began to show nationalistic pride and waited their own country to rule
Between 1829-1908 Greece Montenegro, Serbia, Romania and Bulgaria gained their independence.
The rest of Europe started to view the Ottoman Empire as the "sick man of Europe"
Russia, Great Britain, France and Austria -Hungary all wanted a piece of the fall empire.
In an attempt to strengthen the Empire a young group of Liberals emerge. They were called the Young Turks.
1908 they overthrow the Sultan and take control of the Empire. They try to reform it but by the end of WWI the Ottoman Empire in Gone.
The Industrial Revolution
Change in farming methods in the 1600s that improve the quality and quantity of farm products.
The Agrarian Revolution
Landowners began to fence of land once used by tenant farmers.
The purpose of the enclosure movement was to replace tenant farmers with larger fields. The practice made farming more efficient and improved agricultural production.
Population in Europe during the 1700s increased from 120 million to 190 million.
Three key element to an industrial revolution.
2. Raw Materials/Natural resources
3 large work force
****Because of certain advantages, the IR began in England
England had an abundance of coal and iron ore
England had many natural harbors
Rivers served as transportation routes and sources of power for Factories
England’s colonies provided raw materials for factories and markets for the finished products.
Capital - Merchants had money to spend.
1. Many unemployed farmers went to work in the factories.
2. Urbanization occurred
Causes of the IR started in England
The Rise of the Factory System
Manufacturing went from the domestic system to the factory system
A Higher Standard of Living
Because of mass production, the assembly line, etc. prices came down and a greater amount and variety of goods became available.
III. Effects of the IR
Evils of Factory System
Changes in Working Conditions
In the early days of the IR workers faced horrible treatment.
With the rise of labor unions and more government involvement the situation improved. (Saddler committee)
Pop culture even reflected the problems:
3. European novelists, such as Charles Dickens wrote about the terrible working conditions in Oliver Twist
The Growth of Capitalism
Four characteristics for
1. Class is based on wealth
2. There is private ownership of property
3. The harder you work the more money you make.
laws of Supply and Demand
determine prices and wages.
Laissez- faire economics - governments were giving up total control over their economies.
Adam Smith - wrote a book called "The Wealth of Nations" that became the basis of Capitalism and Laissez- Faire economics.
Mercantilism -> ->->Capitalism
The IR caused population growth
1. This was caused by a variety of things:
a. rising birth rates and declining death rates
b. Increases in the food supply
c. Advances in medicine.
wrote a "Essay on the Principle of Population" said that the food supply would never keep up with the population and would lead to starvation.
Social Darwinism- (Survival of the fittest)
It stated that successful business people were natural more fit to succeed than others.
War allowed stronger countries to take over weaker ones
This lead to
Challenges to Capitalism
This is an economic system that says major industries should be owned and operated by the government for the good of the people.
and Fredrick Engels ) (The Communist Manifesto)
This is a.k.a. “scientific socialism”
This was an alternative to Capitalism.
He said that revolutions by the workers would bring down capitalism.
His ideas were the basis of communism.
This led to humanitarianism, which was a concern for the less fortunate.
Urbanization- Moving to the city
This growth led to inadequate housing, crime and pollution.
Countries wanted more colonies for the raw materials.
Extension of Democracy
More people were given the right to vote (suffrage) (poor, women, minorities)
History was a struggle between the
Workers or Proletariat.
To make profits the capitalist had to take advantage of proletariat.
He felt the works or proletariat would rise up and take control the means or production and would create a classless society.
All wealth would be shared equally.
Four Characteristic of Communism.
1. Classless society
2. No private ownership of land or property.
3. Everyone make the same amount of money.
4. Government sets prices and wages.
Global impact of industrialization.
1845- early 1900s
Improvements in transportation, population growth and social political conditions caused migration throughout the world.
1830- after the Russian army crushed a rebellion in Poland , Polish nationalist fled to Western Europe and the United States.
1848- Failed revolution in Germany city states- Thousands of Germans moved to the United States.
Russia Jews escaping pogroms leave Eastern Europe.
Italian farmers seeking business opportunities come to the United States.
Mass Starvation in Ireland (1845)
Ireland was under British rule.
The farmers were forced to grow wheat and oats for Britain.
The Irish used Potatoes as their main food source.
A disease destroyed the Potato crop, but the british didn't care.
Over the next four years over a million Irish died.
Millions of others migrated to the United States and Canada.
The Steam Engine (1775) James Watt - Scotland
This meant that factories no longer had to build on rivers.
Key inventions of the IR
The Steamboat (1807) Robert Fulton - U.S.
This allowed materials and goods to travel on both rivers and oceans much faster.
The Steam Locomotive (1814)/Locomotive Train(1829) George Stephenson (England)
Trains made transportation across land faster and easier.
The Dynamo (1831) Michael Faraday (England)
The electrical generator provided a new source of power.
The process of making steel (Smelting) (1856) Henry Bessemer (England)
Steel became the most important metal used in industrialization.
Better standard of living
Middle Class emerges
The assembly line (Early 1900's)
Made goods, faster and cheaper
Helped lead to Mass production
To what extent was the Scientific Revolution
a rejection of traditional authority?
Is this still the case today?