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ECY Chapter 2 Policies, Practices and Programs

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Lisa Cranford

on 20 January 2018

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Transcript of ECY Chapter 2 Policies, Practices and Programs

Quiz Cue! Considered the "bill of rights" for children with exceptionalities
PL 94-142
This legislation incorporated six major components and guarantees that have forever changed the landscape of education across the United States
A free and appropriate public education (FAPE)
- all children regardless of their disability, must be provided with an education appropriate to their unique needs
The least restrictive environment (LRE)
- educated to the greatest extent appropriate, with students without disabilities
An individualized education program (IEP)
- an individually tailored statement describing and educational plan
Procedural due process
- affords parents several safeguards as it pertains to their child's education
Nondiscriminatory assessment
- given a variety of tests that are neither racially or culturally nor linguistically biased
Parental participation
- mandated meaningful parental involvement with full participation in the decision-making process
Read Table 2.1 page 43-44
There is an interrelationship between litigation and legislation
PL 99-457
The Education of the Handicapped Act
Amendment of 1986
the legislation does NOT require that preschoolers be identified with a specific disability but it does demand that preschoolers age 3-5 are to receive a free and appropriate public education
Eligible children ages birth through age 2 with developmental delays or disabilities will have an Individualized Family Service Plan (IFSP)
Public Law 101-476 (1990 amendment to PL 94-142)
The word children was replaced with the word 'individuals', and handicapped became '
with a disability'
Required and Individual Transition Plan (ITP) in the IEP for students aged 16 and older
Expanded related services by adding social work and rehabilitation counseling
Repealed states' immunity from lawsuits for violating IDEA
PL 105-17 (1997 amendment to IDEA)
Key components -
students who are suspended or expelled are still entitled to receive a free and appropriate public education in accordance with their IEP
pupils with disabilities may be disciplined provided that the misbehavior was NOT a manifestation of the student's disability
IEPs are now required to state how the child will be involved with and progress in the gen. ed. curriculum
transition planning will begin at 14 instead of 16
regular educators will become part of the IEP team
benchmarks and measurable goals will be emphasized
assistive technology must be considered by the IEP team
related services includes orientation and mobility services
if both parents and school authorities agree and 3 year reevaluation is not required
mediation is required to resolve disputes
the category of developmentally delay may be used to describing children ages 3 through 9
initial evaluations and reevaluations are not restricted to the use of formal standardized tests
a student may not be considered eligible for a special education if educational difficulties are primarily the result of limited proficiency in English or lack of adequate instruction in reading and math
changes in the way federal funds are distributed
requires schools to establish performance goals
Schools were expected to show adequate yearly progress toward the goal of 100 percent proficiency by 2014
Difficulty attaining AYP after 3 years - schools provided technical and financial assistance
Changes to the IEP...
short term goals and objectives are not required unless students are evaluated by alternative assessments
IEP's must include a statement of PRESENT LEVEL of PERFORMANCE
Members of the IEP team may be excused from the meeting if all parties agree and minor changes can be made with reconvening the entire team
transition services are changed to begin no later than the first IEP in effect when the student turns 16
Quiz Cue! IDEA removed the severe discrepancy provision. As an alternative schools may use a RESPONSE to INTERVENTION (RTI) model
PL 93-112 is a civil rights law. Section 504 aims at protecting children and adults against discrimination due to a disability. No individual can be excluded solely because of his or her disability.
Eligibility -
1. have a physical or mental impairment that substantially limits one or more life activities
2. have a record of such impairment; or
3. are regarded as having such an impairment by others

"Major life activities" are broadly defined and include walking, seeing, hearing, working and learning.
Quiz Cue!
All students who are eligible for special education and related services under IDEA are also eligible for accommodations under section 504, the converse however is not true.
Response to Intervention is the NEWEST initiative across the country and is a general education initiative aimed at reducing the number of spec. ed. referrals
When there is little or no response to interventions then the RTI team refers for additional testing
RTI process begins
School districts will be required to determine the eligibility of a student to receive a special education within a time frame of 60 days from the date of receipt of parental permission for evaluation
We will learn more about RTI in chapter 6
compliance with timelines is ESSENTIAL for special education funding
Quiz Cue! Prereferral services should occur BEFORE initiating a referral for special education services
Quiz Cue!
After a student has been referred for special education (but before they have been formally identified as having a disability) you will do all the following
collect preliminary assessment data such as cumulative records and classroom based assessment
Proceed with formal evaluations once parent permission is obtained
provide accommodations in the general education classroom (which is often referred to as differentiated instruction)

Quiz Cue!
You CANNOT however, implement instruction in alternative educational setting (like a resource room) using modified curriculum until the student has been determined to be eligible and parents give permission for services.
the equivalent for infants and toddlers is the IFSP - Individual Family Service Plan
The IFSP is the driving force behind the delivery of early intervention services to infants and toddlers who are at risk or disabled
Least Restrictive Environment (LRE) - is a legal term interpreted to say individuals with disabilities are to be educated in environments as close as possible to the general education classroom setting
Quiz Cue!
Students who are removed from their current educational setting for more than 10 days must still receive special education services
Interim educational placement may be used for up to 45 school days for offenses involving weapons or drugs or inflicting "serious bodily harm"
IEP teams must consider whether the schools failed to implement the IEP appropriately
Students remain in their current educational placement in the event of a hearing or mediation to resolve a dispute
All students participate in state- and district-wide assessment. States are allowed to assess up to 1 % of the students with alternative assessments
An Individualized Education Program (IEP) is a written contract to provide support and services to a student with a disability once the student has been found eligible for special education services. A team, including the parents, uses the assessment information to develop a plan that will benefit the student in the LRE (Least Restrictive Environments - see page 69).
Current performance: statement of child's present level of education functional performance including how the disability may impact involvement in the general education curriculum
Main Components of the IEP
Goal: Statement of measurable annual goals that address students' academic and functional needs in the general education curriculum
Special education and related services: Statement of special, related services, and any additional aids or services the child needs
Participation with typical students: An explanation of the extent, if any, to which the student will not participate in the regular education classroom
Participation in state- and district-wide assessment: Statement of any modifications that may be required in order for a student to participate in state- or district-wide assessments or a statement of how the student will be alternately assessed
Dates and locations: Projected date for services, including location, duration, and frequency of such services
Transition services: Required at age 16; a statement of services to attain post-school goals in training, education, employment, and independent living skills
Progress measurement: statement of how goals will be measured and reported on a regular basis
Resource Room:

Students who receive special education and related services outside the regular classroom for at least 21% but less than 60% of the school day. Students are "pulled out" of the regular classroom and receive specialized instruction or services in a separate classroom for limited periods of time. Services may be individualized or offered in small groups. A common placement option for children with less severe disabilities.
Separate Class:

Students who receive special education and related services outside the regular class for more than 60% of the school day. Commonly known as a self-contained classroom wherein pupils, usually those with more severe disabilities, receive full-time instruction or, in a modified version, participate in nonacademic aspects of school activities. The classroom is located in a regular school building.
Separate School:

Students who receive special education and related services in a public or private separate day school for students with disabilities, at public expense, for more than 50% of the school day.
Residential Facility:
Students who receive a special education in a public or private residential facility, at public expense, 24 hours a day.

Students placed in and receiving a special education in a hospital or homebound program.
Regular Class:
Students who receive the majority of their education in a regular classroom and receive special education and related services outside the regular classroom for less than 21% of the school day. This placement option also includes individuals who are provided with specialized instruction or services within the regular classroom setting
Not a place but a concept
There isn't a "one size fits all approach" to special education that assumes that all students can have their needs met in the same location.
Different students have different needs that may make some placement options more appropriate for some students than they are for other students with the same disability
REI - Regular Education Initiative: Focus on collaboration between regular and special educators to develop effective practices for all students
A shared responsibility between special and general educators increases collaboration and results in a greater ability to meet the needs of all students with and without disabilities in the classroom.
Mainstreaming - This term emerged in 1968 in an essay that questioned the wisdom of segregating children in self-contained classrooms because of their disabilities. Students with disabilities began to have access to regular education classrooms based on their skills and abilities.
Full inclusion is the belief that all children with disabilities should be taught exclusively, with the appropriate supports, in the general education classroom. The LRE may not be the regular education classroom for some students although it should the first consideration for placement when considering the continuum of service delivery options. IEPs require educators to justify educational placements outside the general education classroom.

Quiz Cue! Public Law 99-457 extended the scope of educational services provided by 99-142 to support children ages birth to 2
Click on this link to view further information about RTI

Learning Objectives
Identify cases that led to Public Law 94-142
Summarize key components of IDEA
Explain section 504
Compare inter- and intraindividual differences
Describe norm and criterion referenced assessments
indentify steps in the referral process
list key components of and IEP
Define the various levels of services (LRE)
This table is a synopsis of court cases that influenced special education practices today... How has special education changed over the years?
Visit www.wrightslaw.com to sign up for THE SPECIAL ED ADVOCATE NEWSLETTER... it's free and will keep you up to date on the latest changes in the law.
No Two Children Are Alike
The Encylopedia Brittanica talks about the two concepts of individual differences: (1)
“interindividual differences,”
which compares one child with another, and (2)
“intraindividual differences,”
which compares the child’s abilities in one area with the child’s abilities in other areas. The grouping of children in special classes rests on the concept of interindividual differences, but the instructional procedures for each child are determined by intraindividual differences—that is, by a child’s abilities and disabilities.
"Experienced educators will quickly tell you that even though students may share a common disability label, such as Learning Disability or Visually Impaired, that is where the similarity ends (Special Education in Contemporary Society 6e)."
Identification and Assessment of Individual Differences - Referral for Special Education
Basically, the student's teacher will collect 3 work samples for each of the extended standards, which may be in the form of paper-pencil, pictures, or video showing that the student was able to complete every standard. This is uploaded to a digital portfolio. From experience, it takes as long to upload everything as it does to collect it. You can see the Alabama Extended Standards at https://www.alsde.edu/sec/ses/pages/extendedstandards-all.aspx
The students working on extended standards have significant cognitive delays
A variety of data is collected to give an overall picture of student performance
Depending on the state you teach in, the forms will look different, but all IEPs will contain the same basic information.
Compare the differences from the 5th edition of our book and the 6th edition!
updated with 6ed information 1/1/2018
You can also learn more at the ​​​ Special Education Services > FAQs ​- Extended Standards​ https://www.alsde.edu/sec/ses/Pages/faqs-all.aspx
Practice and apply what you've learned at
Full transcript