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Civil Rights: Strampe
Transcript of Civil Rights: Strampe
Plessy V. Ferguson
Jim Crow Laws
Victorious...The federal government quickly adopts 3 new constitutional amendments aimed at protecting African Americans. Known as the Reconstruction Amendments
Though the south was defeated in a physical sense
on the battlefield, the motives of federal vs. state power and racial equality remained, now fought on the political battlefield. An area in which African Americans were ill equipped to fight.
"Separate but Equal"
The War Is Over!
1865- The Civil War has ended in northern victory, the nation has decided the issue of slavery through battle..... If only it were that simple
"Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States, or any place subject to their jurisdiction."
"All persons born or naturalized in the United States, and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States and of the State wherein they reside. No State shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States; nor shall any State deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws."
"Rights of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any state on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude."
Although physically defeated the southern states were not willing to accept defeat politically, and soon created their own laws....
Jim Crow laws were named for an ante-bellum mistrel show character. The minstrel show is one of the first forms of American entertainment.
Promoted stereotypes of African Americans as lazy, stupid, and sub human
One performer, who became the most famous, was called Daddy Rice. He was a white actor,
who was inspired by an elderly African American man from Louisville, Kentucky, who sang and
danced to a song that ended with the same chorus:
"Come listen all you galls and boys,
I'm going to sing a little song,
My name is Jim Crow.
Weel about and turn about and do jis so,
Eb'ry time I weel about I jump Jim Crow."
Laws put in place by the south to prohibit political and social rights of African Americans.
"Jim Crow was more than a series of rigid anti-black laws. It was a way of life. "
Blacks and whites were not supposed to eat together. If they did eat together, whites were to be served first, and some sort of partition was to be placed between them.
Blacks were not allowed to show public affection toward one another in public, especially kissing, because it offended whites.
Whites did not use courtesy titles of respect when referring to blacks, for example, Mr., Mrs., Miss., Sir, or Ma'am. Instead, blacks were called by their first names. Blacks had to use courtesy titles when referring to whites, and were not allowed to call them by their first names.
Decades of slavery meant that African Americans, though now free, had little money or skills in order to better themselves, a situation quickly taken advantage of by whites.
1. Poll taxes
3. Grandfather Clauses
2. Literacy Tests
Additionally, when an African American registered to vote, their name and address was published in the local newspaper for ten to 14 days.
While many whites were illiterate and poor these Grandfather Clauses exempted them from the tests.
Laws either included fees or land holding as a prerequisite to vote.
As shown,while individual states had been socially segregating whites and African Americans since the end of the Civil War this landmark case would prove instrumental on the national level...
Began in Louisiana which required Separate but equal train cars for both Whites and African Americans.
African American leaders chose to challenge this constitutionally on grounds that segregation violated the Equal Protection Clause of the 14th Amendment, choosing Homer Plessy to make the test case.
Plessy bought a train ticket but sat in the "Whites Only" car... and was quickly arrested and convicted.
In 1896 his appeal reached the Supreme court, but lost 7-2.
"A statute which implies merely a legal distinction between the white and colored races -- has no
tendency to destroy the legal equality of the two races."
Supreme court Justice Henry Brown stated,
....but the fight for Civil Rights has just begun.
By 1910 fewer than 20% of African Americans voted in the South.
Fourteen-year-old Emmett Till was visiting relatives in Money, Mississippi, on August 24, 1955, when he reportedly flirted with a white cashier at a grocery store. Four days later, two white men kidnapped Till, beat him and shot him in the head.
Today, and the rest of this week it is my Mission to ensure you comprehend the significance of the right to vote, and the world changing political battles that have been fought for this right.
“The best argument against democracy is a five-minute conversation with the average voter.”
― Winston S. Churchill
“Democracy cannot succeed unless those who express their choice are prepared to choose wisely.
The real safeguard of democracy, therefore, is education.”
― Franklin D. Roosevelt
Wyoming ranked 32nd in voting turnout in 2012 at 59.3% in between number # 1 Minnesotta (76.1%) and Hawaii at (44.5%)
BUT TO DO SO WE HAVE TO GO BACK....
IN AMERICA WE HAVE FORGOTTEN WHAT IT'S LIKE TO FIGHT FOR SOMETHING WE SEE AS SO SIMPLE AS THE RIGHT TO VOTE.
of voters between
There are 31.5 million individuals in this age range YOU DO THE MATH.........
1. Defines Citizenship for all Americans based on being born here (mainly for African Americans
2. Says same thing as the 5th Amendment that the government cannot take away natural rights with Due Process, but applies it to the state
3. established the idea that the law should provide
Equal Protection clause
(This was used to overturn Same-sex Marriage bans around the nation).
HOPE YOU DIDN'T FEEL
LIKE THIS DURING YOUR
discrimination that results from practice, rather than by law.
ON AP TEST
DE Jure Discrimination
discrimination based on law
About 40% of eligible adult population votes regularly, and 25% are occasional voters, and 35% rarely or never vote.
easons for Age:Less than 1/2 are even registered to Vote.
REMEMBER THE 26th AMENDMENT
1. Young people have not set down roots, and are mobile and do not register as they move.
2. It is new so it can be intimidating, (it was even to your political science teacher)
3. Politics seems distant to them at times and have not impacted them as much as they know.
Rock the Vote and the National Voter Registration Act of 1993
(Motor Voter Act)
- can register when getting your license
African Americans and hispanics turn out about 10-15% less than whites.
1. Mainly due to other socio-economic factors.