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World War I ABC Book by Jessica Yaeger
Transcript of World War I ABC Book by Jessica Yaeger
During WWI, many European countries formed alliances. If one country had something happen to them, their allies would step in and help them. One example is when Serbia had war declared on them by Austria-Hungary. Their ally, Russia, stepped in with their
armed forces to help.
One of the alliances in Europe was called the Allied Powers,
commonly known as the Allies. The Allies consisted of Serbia, Russia, France, Great Britain, Italy, and
seven other countries.
attle of the Somme
The Battle of the Somme was one of the battles in World War I with the most casualties. It went from July to November in 1916 and more than 1.2 million people died.
auses of WWI
War I had four major causes. They were imperialism, nationalism, militarism, and alliances. Imperialism is a cause because some European countries were competing to have colonies in Africa and Asia. Nationalism is a cause because Europeans were very proud and loyal to their country and they wanted to prove that they were the best country. Militarism is a cause because even before the war, major European powers built up their armies and navies because they thought that their nations needed a large military. Alliances is a cause because European nations bound together
and formed alliances.
Any one nation under
attack would be aided by
Starting in May 1917, the U.S required all men between the ages 21 and 30 to sign up for military service. The U.S. did this, because they had less than 200,000 soldiers. By the end of 1918 close to 3 million men had been drafted for the war.
Eddie Rickenbacker was an American hero in World War I. Eddie was a pilot and was famous in the U.S. for being the "ace of aces". He shot down 26 enemy planes and earned the Medal of Honor for attacking 7 German planes and sending 2 of them crashing to the ground.
Fritz Haber was a German scientist who was known for making different chemical gases in World War I. He invented poisonous gas and mustard gas. Poisonous gas burned and blinded soldiers, whereas mustard gas rotted soldiers' skin.
The Gallipoli Campaign started on April 25, 1915
and ended on January 9, 1916. During this battle, the British and the French combined to try and take over the Ottoman capital and make a sea route to Russia. The attempt failed, and both sides had heavy casualties. The battle was considered one of the greatest victories of the Turkish people, and a major fail for the Allies.
Austria-Hungary was the first country to
declare war. On July 28, 1914, exactly one
month after Archduke Franz Ferdinand was
assassinated, Austria-Hungary declared war
on Serbia. Soon after, other European
countries and their allies started declaring
war on each other and World War I began.
In May 1915, a German U-boat sank a passenger ship called the Lusitania. They believed that it was secretly carrying ammunition. They ended up killing 1,198 people. 128 of them were Americans. The U.S. was angered by this, but President Wilson still remained neutral. He demanded that Germany stop unrestricted submarine warfare.
ohn J. Pershing
General John J. Pershing was in charge of the American Expeditionary Force, or AEF. He and 2 million soldiers went to France. The British asked the U.S. government to have AEF troops join up with existing British and French units, but President Wilson declined. He thought that having separate combat units would guarantee the U.S. in major peace talks at the end of the war.
aiser Wilhelm II
Kaiser Wilhelm II, the leader of Germany at the time, was blamed for WWI. On November 9, 1918, he was abdicated. He lived in exile in Holland for the rest of his life.
eague of Nations
The League of Nations was an internal organization set up by President Wilson. It was set up after World War I to settle conflicts through negotiation.
The machine gun was a new technology that countries used in World War I. Some machine guns were portable, and they could fire 600 bullets a minute. They caused high casualties, and they could wipe out people in a 500 yard radius just by swiveling it from side to side
ovember 11, 1918
On November 11, 1918 at 11 A.M., all fighting stopped. About 8.5 million soldiers had died, and about 21 million soldiers had been wounded in World War I.
The Ottoman Empire was part of the Central Powers, along with Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, and Germany. After the war, the Treaty of Versailles came up. It divided up Austria-Hungary and the Ottoman Empire
In order to support the war, countries
used propaganda- opinions expressed for
the purpose of influencing the actions of
others. The United States made posters,
pamphlets, and movies to help support the
troops. All of the propaganda was
one-sided, so it kept support just for the
Eddie Rickenbacker was one of the first Americans to look at the trenches from inside an airplane. On March 6, 1918, he called his flight "the first flyover of a battlefield by a made-in-America-Squadron". Flying over battlefields helped to give the U.S. advantages in seeing where the enemy was located.
Russia had been a major power in World War I until early 1915. The large army had been beaten by a smaller German army. In August, Czar Nicholas II took over the troops. His bad leadership was blamed for many deaths. By 1917, Russia was having food shortages. This led to riots and strikes. In March, Czar Nicholas II was forced to step down, and Vladimir Ilich Lenin took power. Lenin began peace talks with Germany because Russia was devastated. In March 1918, Russia signed the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk and withdrew from the war.
American Rear Admiral William S. Sims came up with a convoy system to help protect Ally merchant ships. German U-boats had been attacking cargo and merchant ships, so he found a way to protect them. His convoy system consisted of a destroyer ship in the front, and two cruisers on either side of the merchant ship. This quickly reduced the loss of merchant ships.
Trench warfare was a new kind of battle that started in World War I. Soldiers would dig trenches and huddle at the bottom. They fired artillery and machine guns.The trenches stretched on for miles. The land between them was called No Man's Land, because you were pretty much dead if you tried to walk out in the open. Some trenches were lined with sand bags and barbed wire as an extra precaution.
U-boats were the German name for submarines. Germany used U-boats equipped with torpedoes and guns to rule the seas. They sank over 11 million tons of Allied shipping goods throughout the war.
Vitorio Orlando was the leader of Italy when they were in the Triple Alliance. The Triple Alliance was made up of Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy. Later in the war, he had Italy switched over to the Allies and stayed on the Allies side until the war ended.
Woodrow Wilson was president
all during World War I. He served
two terms during this time. He
fought to keep American units
separate in battle and he helped make campaigns and propagandas to support
the troops. He kept the U.S. out of the war until he thought it was necessary.
omen in the War
World War I was the first time in history that women were allowed to serve in the military. Close to 50,000 American women served. The Navy took 12,000 female volunteers, and the Marine Corps took 305. They became known as Marinettes. Over 1,000 women served in the Army. Some women were also nurses or volunteers for the American Red Cross. Others were interpreters, switchboard operators, entertainers for troops, and ambulance drivers for the AEF.
th of April, 1917
On the sixth of April, 1917, the U.S. officially declared war. The Senate had declared war on April 4 and the House of Representatives on April 6, making it official. The Germans had been cutting it close, and they finally stepped over the line when they sank 3 American ships, and when the U.S. received the Zimmerman telegram. The U.S. coming into the war really helped the Allies.
Yanks was another name for American troops. The first American troops arrived in June 1917 in France. The 14,000 Yanks lifted the Allies confidence. The Yanks took over Cantigny, where Germans had been. The Yanks helped the French stop German advance. They proved their combat skills, and this put hope into the Allies.
The Zimmerman telegram was the big reason the U.S. joined the war. The British intercepted the telegram and passed it on to the Americans. In it, the German foreign minister, Arthur Zimmerman, told the German ambassador in Mexico to ask Mexico to join the war. He said that in exchange, Germany would help Mexico get back Texas, New Mexico, and Arizona.
by Jessica Yaeger