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Introduction to Ecology and the Biosphere

Adventures are among us.
by

Kate Shapiro

on 25 February 2014

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Transcript of Introduction to Ecology and the Biosphere

Aquatic Biomes-Terms to Know

Photic Zone-zone of a body of water with enough light for photosynthesis
Aphotic Zone-zone of water where little light penetrates
Thermocline-a narrow stratum that seperates warm layers of water from cold layers
Wetlands
Physical Environment: Covered with water, shallow, develop around other bodies of water

Nutrients: low oxygen, can filter chemicals

Organisms/Animals: pond lilies, cattails, crustaceans, birds, otters, alligators, muskrats, dragon flies, and marsh marigold

Human Impact: Draining and filling
Branches of Ecology
1. Ecology = study of interaction between organisms and environment
Overarching Concepts
Introduction to Ecology and the Biosphere

By: Stacy Li, Elise Gout, Delaney Duff, and Kate Shapiro


Lakes
Olgiotrophic and Eutrophic

Size: less surface area compared to depth

Oligotrophic:more oxygen, less nutrients

Eutrophic: more nutrients, less oxygen

Organisms/Animals: zooplankton, phytoplankton, fish, ducks, lily pad

Human Impact: Pollution causes oxygen depletion and kills fish
Terms to KNOW

Organismal Ecology
: based upon morphological, physiological and behavioral ways organisms take on environmental challenges
Population
: a group of individuals that belong to the same biological species
Population Ecology
: study of populations in relation to the environment
Community
: all the organisms inhabiting a certain area
Community Ecology
: study of how interactions btwn species affect the community structure and function
Ecosystem
: a community and its physical environment
Ecosystem Ecology
:study of energy flow and cycling chemicals in the ecosystem
Landscape Ecology
:study of past, present and future patterns of landscape use
Patchiness
:localized variation in environmental conditions w/ in an ecosystem
Biospheres
: the sum of all the planet's ecosystems
Ecology
: the study of how organisms interact with the environment
Abiotic
: Nonliving
Biotic
: referring to living organisms in an environment
Biota
: all organisms that are part of an ecosystem
ECOLOGY
Stream and Rivers

Physical Environment: Headwater - cold, clear, swift current. Narrow and rocky channels
Downstream - warmer, more muddled water. Wide and slow moving channels

Nutrients: Salt + nutrients increase towards the mouth

Organisms/Animals: Trout, invertebrates, freshwater algae, and aquatic plants

Human Impact: Agriculture and industrial pollution, damning and flood control.





Estuaries

Physical Environment: Transition area btwn river and sea; creates channels, mudflats, islands. Water flow changes w/ the tides

Nutrients: Salt concentration varies by rise and fall of tides.

Organisms/Animals: Salt marsh grasses, algae, phytoplankton, oysters, crabs, fish

Human Impact: Pollution from dredging

Intertidal Zones
Periodically submerged and exposed by tides twice a day. Rocky or sandy.

Nutrients: High levels of oxygen and nutrients

Organisms/Animals: Sea grass, green algae, sponges, worms, crabs, and oysters

Human Impact: Oil pollution
Terrestrial Biomes
Oceanic Pelagic Biome

Physical Environment: Vast realm of open blue water. Cover 70% of Earth's surface. Deepest point is 10,000 meters.

Nutrients: High oxygen levels, nutrient levels lower than coastal waters.

Organisms/Animals: photosynthetic bacteria, zooplankton, floating seaweed, krill, jelly fish, sardine, and marine mammals

Human Impact: Overfishing, waste dumping, oil spills.
Coral Reefs
Physical Environment: Coral formed from calcium carbonate. Sensitive to temp (18-20 degrees Celsius and above 30 degrees Celsius.)

Nutrients: Require high levels of oxygen and nutrients.

Organisms/Animals: Coral, red and green algae, fish, seahorse and invertebrates.

Human Impact: Overfishing, collecting coral, global warming, and pollution.
Organism Dispersal and Behavior
Marine Benthic Zone

Physical Environment: Consists of the seafloor, and shallow, near-coastal waters. Receives almost no sunlight. Extremely cold and high water pressure. Soft sediments cover the floor.

Nutrients: Enough oxygen to support diverse animals.

Organisms/Animals: Seaweed and algae in shallow waters. Deep-sea hydrothermal vents are home to chemoautotrophic prokaryotes , invertebrates, tube dwelling worms, sea horses and fish.

Human Impact: Overfishing, dumping of organic waste.
Human Impact
Biotic Factors
Abiotic Factors
WE'RE ON AN ADVENTURE!
Climate
-abiotic factors affect weather conditions in an area, thus organism distribution and patchiness in enviro.
-Macroclimate (global) or microclimate (local)
Effects:
-bodies of water
-latitudinal variation in sunlight
-seasonal variation
-air and rain circulation
-wind patterns
-mountains
Bodies of Water
-ocean currents influence coasts, heat or cool overlaying air that passes over
-coastal regions generally damper than inland areas at same latitude
Latitudinal Variation in Sunlight Intensity
-Earth's curved shape causes the sun light to hit at angles
-Sunlight strikes the tropics most directly, most heat and light delivered there
-At higher latitudes, sunlight strikes Earth at oblique angle, thus light E is more diffuse on Earth's surface
Seasonal Variation
in Sunlight Intensity
-23.5 degree tilt on axis = seasonal variation in intensity of solar radiation

-seasonal variations of light and temp. increase steadily toward poles, tropics most constant
Global Air and Rain
Patterns
-Intense solar radiation near equator initiates global pattern of air circulation and precipitation
-High tropic temp = water evaporates = warm, wet masses rise = release = and flow to poles
-Ascending moist air releases moisture
-Then descends as dry air, absorbing moisture - creating arid deserts
-Creates comparatively rainless and bitterly cold climates of polar regions
Global Wind Patterns
-land near equator moves faster than poles


-cooling trade winds blow E to W in tropics and W to E in temperate zones
Lakes thermally stratified
Turnover - mixing of water from temp change, O to bottom, nutrients to top
Mountains
-effect amount of sun reaching an area
-when warm moist air approaches = air rises = releases rain on windward side
-on leeward side, dry air descends, absords moisture - deserts often found
-these abiotic diffs. affect species distribution
-Stabilize temp, because water changes temp very slowly (high specific heat capacity from H bonds)
-lakes undergo turnover = mixing of water from temp change, O to bottom + nutrients to top
Ecology
the study of interactions between organisms and the environment
Ecology ----> Evolutionary Biology
- Short time frame feeds into long time frame
O-P-C-E-B
(Organism-population-community-ecosystem-biosphere)
A type of ecology focuses on each of these groupings
Dispersal
movement of individuals away from areas of high population or their area of origin
- How or if dispersal is limiting distribution
Other components that can limit distribution :
Animal Behavior, Biotic Factors, Abiotic Factors
Biotic = Other species
Interaction with other species
----> predation, parasitism, disease
Chemical Factors:
Water, Oxygen, Salinity, pH, Soil Nutrients
Physical Factors:
Temperature, Light, Soil Structure, Fire, Moisture
2. Interaction between organisms and environment limit distribution of species
3. Abiotic and biotic factors influence aquatic biomes
4. Climate largely influences terrestrial biomes
ANSWERVES TO DA ACTIVITEE

Climate: Rainfall=200-400cm, Temp=25-29 degrees C.

Plants: large competition for light w/ 3 layers-- canopy (tops of evergreen trees), understory, ground (shrubs).

Animals: huge diversity= amphibians, birds, reptiles, mammals, arthropods, broadleaf evergreens, toucans








Climate: Rainfall= very low, less than 30 cm annually, Temp= 50 degrees C. average, but may be -30 in the winter

Plants: very few except succulents like cacti, shrubs, herbs. Water storage = imp. adaptation, also use of C4/CAM photosynthesis

Animals: snakes, lizards, scorpions, beetles, ants- many are nocturnal










Climate-- seasonal rainfall at about 30-50 cm-dry season can be 8-9 months. Temp= 24-29 degrees C. with seasonal variation

Plants-- scattered trees w/ adaptation to dryness, forbs, grasses (elephant grass)

Animals-- wildebeests, zebras, lions, hyenas, insects

Climate-- rainfall highly seasonal, 30-50cm in fall, winter and spring
Temp = cool most of the year 10-12 degrees C. summer= 30-40 degrees C.

Plants-- dominated by shrubs and trees, adapt to fires and possible water loss

Animals-- browsers, deer, goats, high diversity of small animals

Climate-- rainfall 30-100cm, dry winters, rainy summers.
Temp= winter: -10 degrees C.
summer: up to 30 degrees C.

Plants-- tall grasses, forbs, adaptation through drought and fire, grazing animals help keep other foliage from growing

Animals-- bison, wild horses, prairie dogs

Climate-- rainfall= 30-70cm (usually) but Pacific NW can have up to 300cm

Temp = cold, long winters, -15 degree C. winter, 30 degree C. summer

Plants-- cone bearing trees, pine, spruce, fir etc.

Animals-- migratory birds, moose, brown bears, Siberian tiger, insects



Climate-- rainfall = 20-60cm annually in arctic, many exceed 100cm

Temp= long, cold winters: -30
degrees C., summers= less than 10
degrees C.

Plants-- herbaceous, lichen, moss, grasses, forbs, permafrost (prevents water infiltration)

Animals-- grazing musk ox, caribou, reindeer, bears, wolves, foxes

Climate-- rainfall= 70-200+cm annually
Temp= Winter: 0 degrees C. Summer

Plants-- (mainly deciduous trees) 3 layers, canopy, understory, ground (shrubs, and herbs), low temps reduce photosynthesis

Animals-- many mammals hibernate during winter, bears, birds, insects, Elk
Agriculture
Logging
Mineral/Oil Extraction
Urbanization
Overhunting
Irrigated agriculture
Climograph= plot of temp/rainfall in certain region to see effects of climate and produces avg.
Named specifically for climate and vegetation
Categorized and known for adaptations for certain animals
Ecotone= area of intergradation (wide or narrow)
Vertical Stratification= definition of layering based on vegetation
Patchiness: localized variation in environmental conditions w/ in an ecosystem
Tropical Forest
Desert
Savannah
Chaparral
Temperate Grasslands
Coniferous Forest
Temperate Broadleaf Forests
Tundra
Patchiness:localized variation in environmental conditions w/ in an ecosystem
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