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Introduction to Ecology and the Biosphere

Adventures are among us.

Kate Shapiro

on 25 February 2014

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Transcript of Introduction to Ecology and the Biosphere

Aquatic Biomes-Terms to Know

Photic Zone-zone of a body of water with enough light for photosynthesis
Aphotic Zone-zone of water where little light penetrates
Thermocline-a narrow stratum that seperates warm layers of water from cold layers
Physical Environment: Covered with water, shallow, develop around other bodies of water

Nutrients: low oxygen, can filter chemicals

Organisms/Animals: pond lilies, cattails, crustaceans, birds, otters, alligators, muskrats, dragon flies, and marsh marigold

Human Impact: Draining and filling
Branches of Ecology
1. Ecology = study of interaction between organisms and environment
Overarching Concepts
Introduction to Ecology and the Biosphere

By: Stacy Li, Elise Gout, Delaney Duff, and Kate Shapiro

Olgiotrophic and Eutrophic

Size: less surface area compared to depth

Oligotrophic:more oxygen, less nutrients

Eutrophic: more nutrients, less oxygen

Organisms/Animals: zooplankton, phytoplankton, fish, ducks, lily pad

Human Impact: Pollution causes oxygen depletion and kills fish
Terms to KNOW

Organismal Ecology
: based upon morphological, physiological and behavioral ways organisms take on environmental challenges
: a group of individuals that belong to the same biological species
Population Ecology
: study of populations in relation to the environment
: all the organisms inhabiting a certain area
Community Ecology
: study of how interactions btwn species affect the community structure and function
: a community and its physical environment
Ecosystem Ecology
:study of energy flow and cycling chemicals in the ecosystem
Landscape Ecology
:study of past, present and future patterns of landscape use
:localized variation in environmental conditions w/ in an ecosystem
: the sum of all the planet's ecosystems
: the study of how organisms interact with the environment
: Nonliving
: referring to living organisms in an environment
: all organisms that are part of an ecosystem
Stream and Rivers

Physical Environment: Headwater - cold, clear, swift current. Narrow and rocky channels
Downstream - warmer, more muddled water. Wide and slow moving channels

Nutrients: Salt + nutrients increase towards the mouth

Organisms/Animals: Trout, invertebrates, freshwater algae, and aquatic plants

Human Impact: Agriculture and industrial pollution, damning and flood control.


Physical Environment: Transition area btwn river and sea; creates channels, mudflats, islands. Water flow changes w/ the tides

Nutrients: Salt concentration varies by rise and fall of tides.

Organisms/Animals: Salt marsh grasses, algae, phytoplankton, oysters, crabs, fish

Human Impact: Pollution from dredging

Intertidal Zones
Periodically submerged and exposed by tides twice a day. Rocky or sandy.

Nutrients: High levels of oxygen and nutrients

Organisms/Animals: Sea grass, green algae, sponges, worms, crabs, and oysters

Human Impact: Oil pollution
Terrestrial Biomes
Oceanic Pelagic Biome

Physical Environment: Vast realm of open blue water. Cover 70% of Earth's surface. Deepest point is 10,000 meters.

Nutrients: High oxygen levels, nutrient levels lower than coastal waters.

Organisms/Animals: photosynthetic bacteria, zooplankton, floating seaweed, krill, jelly fish, sardine, and marine mammals

Human Impact: Overfishing, waste dumping, oil spills.
Coral Reefs
Physical Environment: Coral formed from calcium carbonate. Sensitive to temp (18-20 degrees Celsius and above 30 degrees Celsius.)

Nutrients: Require high levels of oxygen and nutrients.

Organisms/Animals: Coral, red and green algae, fish, seahorse and invertebrates.

Human Impact: Overfishing, collecting coral, global warming, and pollution.
Organism Dispersal and Behavior
Marine Benthic Zone

Physical Environment: Consists of the seafloor, and shallow, near-coastal waters. Receives almost no sunlight. Extremely cold and high water pressure. Soft sediments cover the floor.

Nutrients: Enough oxygen to support diverse animals.

Organisms/Animals: Seaweed and algae in shallow waters. Deep-sea hydrothermal vents are home to chemoautotrophic prokaryotes , invertebrates, tube dwelling worms, sea horses and fish.

Human Impact: Overfishing, dumping of organic waste.
Human Impact
Biotic Factors
Abiotic Factors
-abiotic factors affect weather conditions in an area, thus organism distribution and patchiness in enviro.
-Macroclimate (global) or microclimate (local)
-bodies of water
-latitudinal variation in sunlight
-seasonal variation
-air and rain circulation
-wind patterns
Bodies of Water
-ocean currents influence coasts, heat or cool overlaying air that passes over
-coastal regions generally damper than inland areas at same latitude
Latitudinal Variation in Sunlight Intensity
-Earth's curved shape causes the sun light to hit at angles
-Sunlight strikes the tropics most directly, most heat and light delivered there
-At higher latitudes, sunlight strikes Earth at oblique angle, thus light E is more diffuse on Earth's surface
Seasonal Variation
in Sunlight Intensity
-23.5 degree tilt on axis = seasonal variation in intensity of solar radiation

-seasonal variations of light and temp. increase steadily toward poles, tropics most constant
Global Air and Rain
-Intense solar radiation near equator initiates global pattern of air circulation and precipitation
-High tropic temp = water evaporates = warm, wet masses rise = release = and flow to poles
-Ascending moist air releases moisture
-Then descends as dry air, absorbing moisture - creating arid deserts
-Creates comparatively rainless and bitterly cold climates of polar regions
Global Wind Patterns
-land near equator moves faster than poles

-cooling trade winds blow E to W in tropics and W to E in temperate zones
Lakes thermally stratified
Turnover - mixing of water from temp change, O to bottom, nutrients to top
-effect amount of sun reaching an area
-when warm moist air approaches = air rises = releases rain on windward side
-on leeward side, dry air descends, absords moisture - deserts often found
-these abiotic diffs. affect species distribution
-Stabilize temp, because water changes temp very slowly (high specific heat capacity from H bonds)
-lakes undergo turnover = mixing of water from temp change, O to bottom + nutrients to top
the study of interactions between organisms and the environment
Ecology ----> Evolutionary Biology
- Short time frame feeds into long time frame
A type of ecology focuses on each of these groupings
movement of individuals away from areas of high population or their area of origin
- How or if dispersal is limiting distribution
Other components that can limit distribution :
Animal Behavior, Biotic Factors, Abiotic Factors
Biotic = Other species
Interaction with other species
----> predation, parasitism, disease
Chemical Factors:
Water, Oxygen, Salinity, pH, Soil Nutrients
Physical Factors:
Temperature, Light, Soil Structure, Fire, Moisture
2. Interaction between organisms and environment limit distribution of species
3. Abiotic and biotic factors influence aquatic biomes
4. Climate largely influences terrestrial biomes

Climate: Rainfall=200-400cm, Temp=25-29 degrees C.

Plants: large competition for light w/ 3 layers-- canopy (tops of evergreen trees), understory, ground (shrubs).

Animals: huge diversity= amphibians, birds, reptiles, mammals, arthropods, broadleaf evergreens, toucans

Climate: Rainfall= very low, less than 30 cm annually, Temp= 50 degrees C. average, but may be -30 in the winter

Plants: very few except succulents like cacti, shrubs, herbs. Water storage = imp. adaptation, also use of C4/CAM photosynthesis

Animals: snakes, lizards, scorpions, beetles, ants- many are nocturnal

Climate-- seasonal rainfall at about 30-50 cm-dry season can be 8-9 months. Temp= 24-29 degrees C. with seasonal variation

Plants-- scattered trees w/ adaptation to dryness, forbs, grasses (elephant grass)

Animals-- wildebeests, zebras, lions, hyenas, insects

Climate-- rainfall highly seasonal, 30-50cm in fall, winter and spring
Temp = cool most of the year 10-12 degrees C. summer= 30-40 degrees C.

Plants-- dominated by shrubs and trees, adapt to fires and possible water loss

Animals-- browsers, deer, goats, high diversity of small animals

Climate-- rainfall 30-100cm, dry winters, rainy summers.
Temp= winter: -10 degrees C.
summer: up to 30 degrees C.

Plants-- tall grasses, forbs, adaptation through drought and fire, grazing animals help keep other foliage from growing

Animals-- bison, wild horses, prairie dogs

Climate-- rainfall= 30-70cm (usually) but Pacific NW can have up to 300cm

Temp = cold, long winters, -15 degree C. winter, 30 degree C. summer

Plants-- cone bearing trees, pine, spruce, fir etc.

Animals-- migratory birds, moose, brown bears, Siberian tiger, insects

Climate-- rainfall = 20-60cm annually in arctic, many exceed 100cm

Temp= long, cold winters: -30
degrees C., summers= less than 10
degrees C.

Plants-- herbaceous, lichen, moss, grasses, forbs, permafrost (prevents water infiltration)

Animals-- grazing musk ox, caribou, reindeer, bears, wolves, foxes

Climate-- rainfall= 70-200+cm annually
Temp= Winter: 0 degrees C. Summer

Plants-- (mainly deciduous trees) 3 layers, canopy, understory, ground (shrubs, and herbs), low temps reduce photosynthesis

Animals-- many mammals hibernate during winter, bears, birds, insects, Elk
Mineral/Oil Extraction
Irrigated agriculture
Climograph= plot of temp/rainfall in certain region to see effects of climate and produces avg.
Named specifically for climate and vegetation
Categorized and known for adaptations for certain animals
Ecotone= area of intergradation (wide or narrow)
Vertical Stratification= definition of layering based on vegetation
Patchiness: localized variation in environmental conditions w/ in an ecosystem
Tropical Forest
Temperate Grasslands
Coniferous Forest
Temperate Broadleaf Forests
Patchiness:localized variation in environmental conditions w/ in an ecosystem
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