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Comparing and contrasting the english and chinese language

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Michelle H

on 19 December 2014

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Transcript of Comparing and contrasting the english and chinese language

Alphabetic Writing
English writing is based on speech sounds. We get the sound from the form, and from the sound, we decide the meaning. In all alphabetic writing languages, the words are combinations of letters. When we see the words, we can easily pronounce them.
Grammar
Chinese is an uninflected language and conveys meaning through word order, adverbials or shared understanding of the context
concept of time is NOT handled through the use of different tenses and verb forms: futureless language
modals do not convey such a wide range of meaning
Grammar
Most information is carried by the use of auxiliaries and by verb inflections: is/are/were, eat/eats/ate/eaten, etc.
It commonly expresses shades of meanings with adverbs
Ex) use of
please
: open the window,
please
. OR could you open the window,
please
?
Comparing and Contrasting the English and Chinese Language
Similarities and Differences
Similarities
English
Chinese
English and Chinese are two
most widely spoken languages in the world
that belong to “genetically” different language families.
Grammar
: parts of speech are almost the same
no articles in Chinese
no auxiliaries in English
Sentence structure
: they are quite similar in the order of S+V+O
Chinese Pinyin contents all the
26 letters
of English
originated from Indo-European
alphabetic writing
grammar

originated from Sino-Tibetan
ideograph/characters
grammar

597 AD
800 AD
1066
878 AD
450 AD
410 AD
Christian missionaries storm in
brought Latin language
words such as: martyr, bishop, font
Vikings came
brought words: drag, ransack, thrust, die, give, take
Treaty of Wedmore was signed
England became split in two: the southwestern half was kept by the Saxons and the Northeastern half was known as the Danes
Marriage between the Saxons and the Danes blurred the boundaries
Old Norse mixed with Old English
The Norman Conquest
William the Conquerer invades England -> brings French language
words such as: judge, jury, evidence, and justice
Romans leave Britain
Left Latin language
Germanic tribes start coming in
tribes such as: the Anglo, Saxon, Jutes
brought words: house, woman, loaf, werewolf

The Hundred Years War Against France
English took over as the language of power
1337-1453
1453
Origin of English language
Ideograph is modern Chinese characters that are based on the meaning. It shows the sense. Chinese characters are the writing forms of the Chinese terms. Both the sound and sense prescribe the writing forms. The writing symbols are prescribed either from the speech sounds or from meaning. From either of them, the writing system can be built. In the ancient characters, people used the method of “image description” to show meanings, but this did not break the unity of sounds and meanings. From the forms of some of the characters, we see the meanings, and from the meanings, we decide the sounds, like the pictographic characters. Chinese characters are composed of strokes, which are the smallest units in the language. Each character is like a building and has its own interior structure. Each one is independent, and they have to be memorized one by one.
o lopographic system for its written language, in which symbols represent the words themselves – words are not made up of various letters as in alphabetic systems

Chinese ideograph/characters
Michelle Huynh LIN001Y-A05 Fall 2014
History of English
Auxiliary Verbs
How to Learn Chinese Characters
Chinese Word Order

25 AD - 907 AD
907 AD - 1616 AD
1955
1949
800 - 600 BC
1200 BC
Medieval Chinese (25 AD - 907 AD)
Most of the Chinese phonological history and written history of the medieval period are drawn from a single work: the rhyming prouncing dictionary, Qui Yan.
From Qui Yin, we see some evidences of a tonal language.
Syllables were grouped into four tones, divided according to rhyme, and then further divided according to initial consonants.
Buddhist missionaries from India entered China and brought with them not only religious doctrine, but also words to describe their belief.
Premodern Chinese (907 AD - 1616 AD)
A growing disparity and divergence among Chinese dialects characterized the Pre-Modern period.
The rift between the northern dialect Wu (Mandarin) and the southern dialect Cantonese continued to grow at a rapid pace. This set the stage for language reform and standardization.
Modern Chinese: 1616 - the present
The communists took power and wanted language reform.
7 main dialects with hundreds of subdialects proliferated throughout China.
Communist leaders focused their efforts at simplifying traditional script, as well as, defining and establishing a Modern Standard Chinese.
Modern Chinese (1616 - present) continued
At a major language conference held in Beijing, a consensus was reached, and putonghua was introduced.
To endure that putonghua succeeded, policies enforced that all education instruction and media were done in putonghua.
Workers were also encouraged to use putonghua in the public sector.
Archaic Chinese (1700 BC - 25 AD)
The Zhou Dynasty introduced a rudimentary form of fedualism and with it came an environment that fostered dialectical variations. At the same time, this was paralleled by an increased number of administrative, diplomatic, and military exchanges between the local and centralized governments.
The Zhou kings decided that a standard Chinese had to be emphasized.
This resulted in yayan or Aelegant speech
Archaic Chinese (1700 BC - 25 AD) continued
Shi Chin writing was used to reconstruct pronunciation. It was beneficial in providing phonotatic and phonemic inventory of Archaic Chinese.
The end of the Han dynasty marked the end of Archaic Chinese.
present
Today, there are seven main dialects in China
History of Chinese Characters

Bibliography

Works Cited

"The Differences between English and Chinese." Language Differences: English. N.p., n.d. Web. 05 Dec. 2014.

"Linguistic Considerations for English Language Learners - Web." Linguistic Considerations for English Language Learners - Web. N.p., n.d. Web. 04 Dec. 2014.

"Scenario on the Two Popular Languages:." Scénario. N.p., n.d. Web. 05 Dec. 2014.


"Origin of Chinese Characters." About.com. N.p., n.d. Web. 5 Dec. 2014.

"Yale University Press: Publisher of Trade and Academic Books." Yale University Press: Publisher of Trade and Academic Books. N.p., n.d. Web. 05 Dec. 2014.

"Foreign Translations." Chinese Language History. N.p., n.d. Web. 19 Dec. 2014.


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http://www.towson.edu/ows/auxverb3.jpg
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http://m.archeolog-home.com/medias/images/1-150.jpg
http://www.ink-treasures.com/images/Chinese-calligraphy-origins/Bronze-inscriptions.jpg
http://www.chinapictures.org/images/chinese-calligraphy/1/chinese-calligraphy-40615090117558.jpg
http://lbms03.cityu.edu.hk/event/ch_calligraphy/images/clerical_script_03.jpg
http://www.china-tour.cn/images/Chinese-Arts/Regular-Script.jpg
http://www.asia.si.edu/explore/china/calligraphy/images/F1998.83_detail570.jpg

IMAGES
ORIGIN OF CHINESE language
VIDEOS
Source: How did English evolve? - Kate Gardoqui

Source: English Grammar Auxiliary Verbs

Source: History of Chinese characters (introduced in english)

Source: How to learn Chinese characters? (4 basic concepts)

Source: Mandarin Chinese Lessons with Yangyang - Grammar 001 (Chinese Word Order)
Modern Chinese (1616 - present) continued
Full transcript