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Nervous System

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alejandra loa

on 11 November 2015

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Transcript of Nervous System

Dysfunction of the Nervous System
Nervous System
Central Nervous System:

composed of millions of nerve and glial cells, together with blood vessels and a little connective tissue.
Brain:
The brain is the control center, it is made up of three parts the fore brain, mid brain, and hind brain.
Spinal Cord:

The spinal cord has two main functions in our bodies, the large part of the PNS, connects to the brain information reaches the spinal cord through sensory neurons while they are transmitted to the brain.
Parts of the Nervous System
Common Diseases
of the Nervous System
Cranial Nerves and their functions
There are 12 pairs of cranial nerves. these nerves attach directly to the brain, each with a separate function, when referring to these nerves, it is proper to use Roman numerals.
1.

Neuritis

2.

Multiple sclerosis (MS)
3.

Parkinson’s disease
4.

Bell’s palsy

1. Neuritis

is the inflammation of nerves. It may be the result of a fall or blow and can affect one or more nerves in the body.

Symptoms of Neuritis
Pain and tenderness
Impaired sensation
Numbness
Hypersensitivity
Effect version


Neuritis effects on dentistry
Failed while dental treatment because of the pain.
Difficult time on the dentist's chair.
Abnormal numbness.
Hypersensitive this will effect Dental Hygienists.

Peripheral Nervous System:

a nerve is a collection of nerve fibers that is visible to the naked eyes. The constituent fibers are bound together by connective tissue.
Motor Neurons:
a nerve cell called neuron. The body cell is located in the spinal cord and it is fiber (axon) projects outside of the spinal cord direct or indirect effector organs mainly tax muscles and glands.
Sensory Neurons:
a nerve cells in he nervous system to convert the external stimuli in the environment of the organisms into internal electrical impulses. They respond to tactile stimuli and it can activate motor neurons in order to get the muscle contraction.


Disorders of the nervous system
Vascular disorders
, such as stroke, transient schematic attack(TIA), sub arachnoid hemorrhage and hematoma, and extramural hemorrhage.
Infections
, such as meningitis, encephalitis, polio, and epidural abscess.
Structural disorders
, such as brain or spinal cord injury, Bell's palsy, cervical sponsorships, carpal tunnel syndrome, brain or spinal cord tumors, peripheral neurophaty, and Guillain-Barre syndrome.
Functional disorders
,such as headache, dizziness, and neuralgia.
Degeneration
, such as Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), Huntington's chorea, and Alzheimer's disease.
The nervous system consists of three sections; brain, spinal cord, and nerve cells.
The
brain
and the
spinal
cord make up the
central nervous system (CNS)
.
The
Brain
consist of many interlinked parts. The brain revises coming stimuli and interprets and processes the information.
The
spinal cord

First it is a center for reflex or involuntary responses. Second the spinal cord transmits stimuli from the body to the brain. Also it generally protects the body from stressful situations.
Reflex arc
occurs

when a stimulus is sent through the sensory neurons into the spinal cord.

Peripheral nervous system (PNS)
includes all the nerves and naturals tissues outside the CNS.
Motor neuron
the neurons that carry messages away from the spinal cord and brain.
somatic nervous
system controls skeletal muscle contractions.
Autonomic nervous system (ANS)
is a specialized group of peripheral nerves that function mainly automatically.
-The autonomic nervous system has
two
main divisions:
*
Sympathetic
*
Parasympathetic
Sensory neurons
work together to carry messages from all over the body to the spinal cord and the brain.
Neuron (Nerve Cell)
a nucleus surrounded by a cell membrane with thread-like projections called nerve fibers.
Dendrites
is the nerve fibers that conduct impulses toward the cell body.
Axons
are nerve fibers that conduct impulses away from the cell body.
Synapse
nerve fibers move impulses from one cell body to another through a synapse.
Myelin Sheath
some nerves in the PNS, are covered with layers of Schwinn cells
Functions of the Nervous System
2. Multiple Sclerosis (MS)
is a disease that usually appears in people aged 20 to 40. Multiple Sclerosis may also cause pain in a specific tooth. This causes the patient to seek care on what is essentially a healthy tooth. Women are about twice as likely as men are to develop MS.
Symptoms of Multiple sclerosis (MS)
Numbness or weakness
Loss of vision
Pain in parts of your body
Dizziness
Multiple Sclerosis (MS) effects on dentistry

Difficulty relaxing on the dentist's chair.
Difficult for the dentist to do a thorough dental examination.
The patients easily to swallowing of the denture.
A patient have a hard time to brushing his/her teeth.
Multiple breaks of 5-10 minutes per half hour of treatments should be given.
Recommended to schedule early morning appointments.
Stress, fatigue, and muscle spasms may also play an important factor in chair time.
The dentists often have a hard time conducting proper treatment.
Tooth decay, halitosis, or periodontal disease can also occur at higher rates in these patients.
4. Bell's palsy

is a sudden onset of facial paralysis.

Symptoms of Bell's palsy
Sudden weakness or paralysis on one side of your face that causes it to droop. This is the main symptom. It may make it hard for you to close your eye on that side of your face.
Eye problems, such as excessive or a dry eye.
loss of ability to taste.
Pain in or behind your ear.
Numbness in the affect side of your face.
Increased sensitively to sound.

Bell's palsy effects on dentistry
Hard to move the left corner of the mouth and smile, this can effects on dental treatment.
Drooping mouth it will be hard for dentist to work with.
Hard to communicate with the dentist.


Cranial Nerves and Their Functions
3. Parkinson's disease
is a chronic nervous disease characterized by slowly spreading tremors, muscular weakness, and a peculiar gait. Parkinson's gets worse over time. But usually this happens slowly, over many years.
Symptoms of Parkinson's disease
Trembling of hands, arms, legs, jaw and face
Stiffness of the arms, legs and trunk
Slowness of movement
Poor balance and coordination.

Parkinson's disease effects on dentistry
Make a dentist's examination more difficult.
Weakened swallowing ability can increase the risk of aspiration (choking) from some treatments.
Dry mouth, which can contribute to or worsen already-existing chewing difficulties or denture discomfort.
Parkinson's disease
Multiple Sclerosis (MS)
Bell's Palsy
Neuritis
Treatment of Neuritis
Treatment of neuritis by painkilling drugs may give temporary relief but it does not remove the trouble effectively. The best treatment for neuritis is to ensure that the patient gets optimum nutrition, well assimilated with all the vitamins and other nutrients.
Home remedies have been found highly beneficial in the treatment of neuritis such as soybean milk, barley brew, raw carrot and spinach, and hot Epsom-salt baths.
Vitamins B1, B2, B6, B12, and pantothenic acid have been given together, and extreme pain, weakness and numbness in some cases have been relieved within an hour.
Neuritis
Treatment of Multiple Sclerosis
MS has no cure, but medicines may help lower the number of attacks and makes them less severe.

Beta interferon
are inject able medications used for the treatment of relapsing-remitting MS.

Glatiramer acetate
is given by subcutaneous injection every day for the treatment of relapsing-remitting MS. It is also used for patients who have experienced a first clinical episode and have MRI findings consistent with MS.

Dimethyl fumarate
is an oral capsule take twice a day that is used to treat people with relapsing forms of MS.

Natalizumab
is an intravenous medication reserved for patients with rapidly progressing MS or with high disease activity despite the use of an alternate MS therapy. it is administered once every four weeks.
Parkinson's Disease
Treatment of Parkinson's disease
Treatment of Bell's Palsy
Physiotherapy:
Facial exercises that will strengthen the muscles in your face.

Plastic surgery:
Specialists to help manage your facial weakness. A number of procedures can improve the position of your mouth and help with speech, eating and drinking and facial symmetry.

Botulinum toxin injections or botox:
can be used to treat either the affected or the unaffected side of the face in some people with long-term Bell's palsy. Also, Botox may be injected into the affected side of the face to relax any facial muscles that have become tight, or reduce any unwanted muscle movements.
Multiple Sclerosis
Medications
Surgery
Complementary and supportive therapies, such as diet, exercise, physical therapy, occupational therapy, and speech therapy.

Specific treatment for a Parkinson's disease will be determined by your physician based on:
Your age, overall health, and medical history
Extent of the condition
Your tolerance for specific medications, or therapies
Expectations for the course of the condition
Your opinion or preference

Sukanya Roddy
Alejandra Loa
Anaelodia Lopez

Treatment
Nervous System overview
Disorders of the Nervous System
the nervous system is vulnerable to various disorders. It can be damaged by the following:
Trauma
Infections
Degeneration
Structural defects
Tumors
Blood flow disruption
Autoimmune disorder
Signs and symptoms of nervous system disorders.
Persistent or sudden onset of a headache
A headache that changes or is different
Loss of feeling or tingling
Weakness or loss of muscle strength
Sudden loss of sight or double vision
Memory loss
Impaired mental ability
Lack of coordination
Muscle rigidity
Tremors and seizures
Back pain which radiates to the feet, toes, or other parts of the body
Muscle wasting and slurred speech
What is The Nervous System?
-The Nervous System provides communication for the body and responds to internal and external stimuli.
Patient Care
Make sure a patient feel comfortable in the chair
Be careful about a patient will swallow the denture
Always check Medical history
Build a good relationship with patient
Make sure a patient really understand everything
Full transcript