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Chapter 15: Crisis and Resurgence, 1969 - 2000
Transcript of Chapter 15: Crisis and Resurgence, 1969 - 2000
The Nixon Presidency, 1969 - 1974
The constitution created a balance of power between the branches of government.
But, the Presidency had increased since the 1930s.
The Great Depression, 2 World Wars and the Cold War increased the importance of the United States Presidency.
1st Amendment Rights
President can act quicker than Congress and radio & TV helped the president appeal to the voter.
Presidents relied on personal advisers instead of cabinet members (Congress approved).
Many viewed the power of the President had grown too far.
Power of President reached its peak under President Richard Nixon.
Nixon made several unauthorized decisions without Congress approval.
Bombed Cambodia and Laos
mining of North Vietnam's harbor
Remodeled his home with public money
Used CIA & FBI to collect information about his political enemies.
Eliminated several Great Society programs
Gave federal funds to state and allowed them to decide how to spend it.
Believed in revenue sharing
created anti crime laws
promised to appoint Supreme Court Justices with a conservative philosophy.
Tinker v. Des Moines (1969) - John Tinker and his sister were suspended from school for wearing black armbands to protest the Vietnam War.
Supreme Court ruled that under the 1st Amendment, students have the right to protest via armband.
Wisconsin v. Yoder (1972)
Supreme Court ended a law that required Amish children to attend school beyond the 8th grade.
Violated freedom of religion.
High School conflicted with Amish values and beliefs.
new trade deficit
To fight inflation, Nixon cut spending on social programs and took America off the gold standard.
This did not work.
He imposed 1st peacetime wage and price controls.
None of these attempts were successful.
The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)
Nixon created EPA to protect the environment.
EPA sets air and water pollution standards for cities.
New construction projects must pass EPA checks.
Nixon also signed the Endangered Species Act (1973) - law that requires Fish & Wildlife Service to list species of plants and animals that are threatened with extinction (take steps to save them).
The Equal Rights Amendment (ERA)
1923, Alic Paul, founder of National Woman's Party, proposed the Equal Rights Amendment.
Failed to pass in Congress for 50 yrs.
1972, finally approved by Congress and sent to states with 7 year time limit.
Deadline extended to 1982, but fell short.
Has been reintroduced into every Congress since.
Women's Liberation Movement
attacked liberal Republicans
She was against ERA
Believed it would reduce rights for women
Feared that support & protection from men would stop.
This law may lead to unisex restrooms and require women to serve in combat roles.
Nixon's Foreign Policy
Nixon believed this was the President's most important role.
With help from foreign policy expert Henry Kissinger, Nixon had two great foreign policy successes.
1 - opening relations with Communist China
2 - Beginning a detente with Soviet Union.
Re-Opening Relations with China, 1972
After Communist revolution in China, 1949, U.S. refused to have a relation with a Communist government.
US acknowledged the leaders in Taiwan and vetoed Chinese attempts to enter UN.
Nixon wanted to create a more flexible situation within Asia to put more pressure on North Vietnam.
Nixon was a strong anti-Communists.
shocked the world by restoring relations with China.
1972, Nixon became 1st American President to visit mainland China.
Reopening relations with China was Nixon's greatest foreign policy achievement.
Detente with the Soviet Union, 1972
Nixon believed in a policy of detente - a relaxing of tensions.
Wanted to halt the build up of nuclear weapons
1972, Nixon was the 1st President to visit Moscow.
Signed agreement with Soviet leaders
Also agreed to sell American grain to Soviet Union (Russian food shortage)
1973, war broke out in Middle East.
United States & Soviet Union worked together to force a cease-fire between Israel and the Arab states.
Vice President Ford Takes Office
Nixon promised a return to "law & order".
But, Americans soon learned his government was corrupt.
1973, Nixon's Vice President, Spiro Agnew resigned - took bribes as Governor of Maryland.
25th Amendment - Nixon appointed Gerald Ford, a Michigan Congressman and new V.P.
The Watergate Crisis
Meanwhile, 1972, group of former CIA agents, working for Nixon's re-election as President, were caught breaking into Democratic Party headquarters at the Watergate complex in Washington, D.C.
Greater scandal than Agnew's resignation.
The Cover Up
Nixon tried to cover it up.
Claimed the break in on grounds of national security.
Two reporters broke the case open
Congress appointed a committee to investigate
The Watergate Tapes
At the hearings, a Presidential aide stated Nixon did indeed participate in the cover-up.
Nixon recorded all of his own White House conversations.
When State Committee asked to listen to the tapes, Nixon refused and claimed executive privilege.
Nixon argued Congress had no authority to question executive branch about internal communications without presidential approval.
United States v. Nixon (1974) Nixon claimed if he turned over tapes to courts it would lead to judicial control over the Presidency, violation separation of powers in the Constitution.
Case was appealed, Supreme Court ruled Nixon must turn over tapes, reaffirming the principle that no one is above the law.
Tapes revealed Nixon had lied.
Based on this House of Representatives moved to impeach Nixon.
Fearing removal from office by the United States Senate, Nixon became the 1st President to resign.
The Impact of Watergate
Lowered public confidence in government.
Revealed the Presidents growing power created opportunity for abuse.
Government is based on laws, not people
Checks & balances works.
2 party system works, party out of power serves as watch dog for other party.
Established importance of the press.
Supreme Court preserved its respect
Congress passed new laws - curb Presidents power.
"All the President's Men"
The Ford Presidency, 1974 - 1977
Gerald Ford became the next President.
He wasn't even elected in as Vice President.
His 1st act as President was to pardon Nixon for any crimes he had committed.
The pardon came under heavy public criticism.
Ford's main concern was the economy.
inflation - rising prices
economists believe rising prices helps economic growth and full employment
workers need more money
More purchasing would also increase prices
But, Americans suffered from stagflation - high unemployment combined with inflation.
The Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC)
had been formed by oil-producing countries in 1960.
most were Arab
1973, Arab nations of OPEC used oil as a political weapon by imposing an oil embargo on the US & Western European for siding with Israel in the 1973 war.
Overnight, prices shoot up
War ends, OPEC continues t push oil prices.
High costs of energy had impact on American economy
Cost of heating homes, price of food, electricity & gasoline.
The Helsinki Accords
Ford continued Nixon's detente policy with the Soviet Union.
1975, U.S., Canada, the Soviet Union, and mos European countries signed an international agreement known as the Helsinki Accords, recognizing post WWII borders & promising respect for human rights.
The Carter Presidency, 1977 - 1981
Republicans were stained from Watergate scandal.
Jimmy Carter, Democratic, former Governor of Georgia, was nominated to run against President Ford in 1976.
Promised to end corruption and clean up Washington.
Carter's Domestic Policy
Carter battled economy just as Ford did.
Oil prices rose, US depended on imported oil.
Inflation was more than 10%
Unemployment was high and interest rates rose to 20%.
created the Department of Energy
Stagflation - cut federal spending
Provided funds to clean up toxic dump sites
created Nuclear Regulatory Commission
Appointed women and minority members to government posts.
Required schools to provide help to students in their native language while learning English.
Banks excluded minorities and people from poor neighborhoods.
Community Reinvestment Act (1977) - required banks to make credit available for the poor.
Set example for World
Human Rights (High Priority)
Condemned apartheid in South Africa
Pressures Soviet Union to let Jews emigrate
Cut aid to dictatorships.
The Panama Canal Treaty, 1977
Signed treaty returning control of Canal Zone to Panama, except canal itself.
Turn the canal over at end of Century
Camp David Accords, 1977
Israel was established for Jews by the U.N. in 1948 after WWII and the holocaust.
Many Jews already lived there, but many Palestinian Arabs did as well.
Truman supported the idea of Israel.
US-Israeli relations were influenced by a strong support of American Jews.
Israel relied on US economic & military aid for its survival.
Egypt & Israel fought each other since its creation in 1948.
Carter invited Anwar Sadat, President of Egypt and Menachem Begin, the Prime minister of Israel, to the Presidential retreat at Camp David in Maryland.
With Face to face negotiations, an agreement was reached.
Under the Camp David Accords, Israel agreed to return the Sinai Peninsula to Egypt, which Israel had taken in the Six-Day War in 1967.
In exchange, Egypt offered peace and normal diplomatic relations with Israel.
Ending 30 years of warfare
Sadat & Begin were awarded the Nobel Peace Prize.
Arab leaders were not pleased, it did not create a homeland for Palestinians.
Several Arab nations broke ties with Egypt.
Sadat was later assassinated by Muslim Fundamentalists, who opposed any peace with Israel.
U.S. - Soviet Relations
Continued Nixon's detente.
1979, Soviets invaded Afghanistan.
Carter halted grain sales to Soviets.
Boycotted 1980 Olympics in Moscow
Postponed new arms control agreement, SALT II
The Iranian Revolution & Hostage Crisis
The shah (ruler) of Iran was an ally of the United States.
also brutal dictator
Early 1960s, he promised change to his people
Never delivered these improvements
1978, widespread demonstrations broke out
Shah fled country
1979, Ayatollah Khomeini and other religious leaders took control.
Fundamentalist Shiite Muslims were generally hostile to Western influence.
Hated America for helping the Shah and backing Israel.
1979, Shah enters U.S. for medical treatment.
2 weeks later, Iranian students seized the staff of the U.S. embassy in Tehran, Iran.
Hostages were blindfolded, tied up & accused of working for CIA.
Were held hostage for more than a year.
U.S. imposed economic sanctions on Iran, as did other countries.
America's image suffered, because they were unable to free hostages.
Surprise rescue attempt failed.
Negotiations were finally made on the day Carter left office and Reagan became President.
- movie "ARGO"
The New Conservatism:
The Reagan and Bush Presidencies
1980s, a resurgence of Conservatism
Since New Deal, Gov't had been steadily increasing. (responsibility to aid American society)
Reagan & Bush wanted to cut down the size of the govt.
Reduce taxes and federal regulations on business.
Increased private competition.
Favored strong military establishments
Grew government in one direction while reduced the other.
The Reagan Presidency, 1981 - 1989
Hollywood actor after WWII
President of actors union
Originally a Democrat
Decided Govt had become too powerful.
Governor of California
Took tough stance against student protesters in 1960s.
Lost Republican nomination for President in 1968 & 1976.
Won nomination in 1980 and picked Texas Congressman George H. W. Bush as his running mate.
Voters swept Reagan into office over Jimmy Carter.
Roots of the New Conservatism
Conservative beliefs rose in the U.S. in 1980s.
Britain was experiencing similar changes: combating unions, reducing taxes, cutting govt spending and reducing the amount of govt regulations.
1980, Reagan received support from leading American conservative groups.
National Rifle Association
The NRA was begun to promote rifle shooting and marksmanship skills.
After assassination of JFK, brother Robert and MLK, Congress enacted the Gun Control Act of 1968.
This provoked the NRA to become more political.
Most NRA members are politically conservative.
1980, NRA endorsed Ronald Reagan, 1st time NRA supported a Presidential candidate.
The Moral Majority
helped elect Ronald Reagan
Begun n1979, by Evangelist Reverend Jerry Falwell, the Moral Majority favored a strict interpretation of the Bible and an agenda that was socially conservative and anti-Communist.
made telephone calls and held rallies to help Ronald Reagan
1989, group dissolved when Falwell announced that "our mission is accomplished".
Reagan's policies were influenced by the Heritage Foundation, a "think-tank" based in D.C.
They seeked to promote conservative ideas: free enterprise, limited govt, individual freedom, values & a strong national defense.
Reagan's Domestic Policy
Projected confident outlook
Americans welcomed a change
Reagan introduced a return to prosperity to many, although not to all.
Reagan believed people and businesses could solve economic problems rather than the gov't and reversed the trend of increased federal control that dates back to the ideas of the Progressive Era.
stagflation was still main issue
tried "supply-side economics"
Previous attempts focused on consumer demand
Reagan concentrated on supply
Reduce taxes & regulations - hoped to make it easier to produce goods
Larger supply would drop prices.
Would also lead to fuller employment
1983, Economy began to come out of recession.
Tax cuts, deregulation & military spending encouraged greater business activity
New supplies of oil in Alaska and the North Sea stabilized oil prices.
cut taxes on businesses & wealthy
believed they would invest their tax savings
Benefits would trickle down to poor people
To finance the tax cut, Reagan reduced spending in federal welfare programs.
eliminate many federal regulations
easier for new companies to compete
relaxed anti-trust laws and allowed more mergers.
Increased Military Spending
increased military spending, which financed through borrowing
increased spending stimulated economy
World oil prices stabilized
New jobs were created - computer programming
Health care jobs increased
Fired protestors on strike. (Air traffic controllers)
The Federal Deficit and the National Debt
The Federal Deficit - amount of money the federal government spends beyond what it collects in taxes.
Because of military spending, the federal deficit increased and the national debt more than doubled.
The Trade Imbalance
During Reagan years, Americans bought more goods and services from abroad than they should oversee
Lead to loss of millions of jobs
closing steel mills and auto plants
Drop of disposable income of many Americans
Reagan Immigration Policy
Reagan introduced the Mazzoli-Simpson Act (1986) to deal with the problem of illegal immigration
legalized illegal aliens who lived continuously in the U.S. since 1981.
Sandra Day O' Connor
1981, President Reagan nominated Sandra Day O' Conner as the 1st woman Justice on the U.S. Supreme Court
born in El Paso, TX
Studied in California and then moved to Arizona
Early years on United States Supreme Court she was conservative.
In the 1990s, she emerged as a swing vote between the conservative and liberal groups on the Court.
Rebuild after Vietnam, Watergate and Iran Hostage Crisis
Defender of Freedom and Democracy
The Reagan Doctrine
1983, Reagan sent US Marines to Grenada, to prevent Communists and protect Americans on islands.
Proved Reagan would use force.
1985, Reagan announced "Reagan Doctrine"
Reagan would "roll back" communism by aiding anti Communist "freedom fighters" in Afghanistan, Angola, Nicaragua, and Cambodia.
Reagan believed in a policy of "Peace through Strength".
Best way to prevent war, was to make America's enemies think that the US had the means and the will to stop aggression
Increased military spending
Also proposed research into an anti-ballistic defensive system, the Strategic Defensive Initiative (also known as Star Wars), using lasers to shoot down missiles in order to prevent a nuclear attack.
This disturbed Soviet leaders.
Threat of Terrorism
Terrorism refers to the use of bombing, assassination, kidnapping or other acts of terror to ensure that a political group's voice is heard and govt's will yield to their demands.
1982, Israeli invaded Lebanon, setting off civil war between Christians and Palestinian refugees.
Lebanon requested US & French support to restore order.
1983, suicide bombers attacked American and French barracks in Beirut, Lebanon.
241 US Marines & 58 French paratroopers were killed
Reagan then withdrew forces in Lebanon.
US bombed 2 cities in Libya in 1986, we believed its leader Muammar Gaddafi, had supported terrorist activities in Berlin.
Libya admitted to blowing up a Pan Am flight over Scotland in 1988.
The Iran-Contra Affair
Secret foreign policy by officials in Reagan White House.
1986, Reagan Admin sold arms to Iran as part of a deal in exchange for the release of American hostages in Lebanon.
Profits from the sales of arms to Iran, were then diverted to support anti-Communist "Contra" rebels fighting the Communist govt of Nicaragua.
This was done even though Congress had prohibited any US aid to the Contras.
When affair was revealed, this shocked the world.
An investigation cleared Ronald Reagan of any direct wrong-doing.
Several officials were convicted of lying to Congress and sent to prison.
After Watergate, Iran-Contra, led many citizens to question their trust in govt.
The Triumph of Democracy
Reagan's 2nd term - Philippines & Latin American dictatorships and military govt's were suddenly replaced by democratically elected civilian govt's.
End of Reagan Presidency - beginnings of the end of the Cold War.
Called the Soviet Union an "Evil Empire"
Mikhail Gorbachev - head of Soviet Communist Party in 1985.
Soviet economic & political system failed
New reforms for Soviet Union
Gorbachev agreed to withdraw troops from Afghanistan.
Reagan & Gorbachev signed agreements to disarm thousands of nuclear missiles.
Some give Reagan credit for ending the Cold War, others say he benefited from Gorbachev reforms.
The George H.W. Bush Presidency, 1989-1993
Served as Reagan's Vice President for 2 terms
Promised to continue Reagan's Policies, but with greater compassion for homeless & poor.
Improve education and fight Drug use.
Bush's Domestic Policy
Greatest challenge was to reduce growing budget deficits.
Current world events permitted cuts in military spending
1990, Bush increased tax on wealthy
Could not reduce budget deficit.
The Impact of Defense Spending on U.S. Economy
some believe the spending can push economy thru recession.
WWII pushed thru depression
others believe it can use up other resources for other productive uses.
Less investment in peacetime projects, higher budget deficits and more borrowing or higher taxes
Less money available for education.
Supreme Court Appointments
Bush made several appointments to Supreme Court
Toughened rules for criminal defendants, reduced abortion rights and other changes.
1990 - back to recession
Reduced spending by consumers, corporations, federal & state governments.
Lay-offs in several key industries
70's & 80's had increased in population in Sunbelt.
90's population decreased in "Rust Belt"
NE & Midwest with coal and iron resources.
Collapse of US steel industry (Gary, Indiana, Detroit, Michigan, & Milwaukee, Wisconsin) have suffered a steady loss of manufacturing jobs to Mexico & overseas.
Civil Rights and Civil Unrest
Great progress had been made
But, then riots erupted in L.A. in 1992
Jury found policemen not guilty when videotaped beating a young African-American, Rodney King.
70 people were killed
Continued racial tensions.
Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990
Bush signs landmark act which prohibited discrimination against people with disabilities in employment and in public accommodations.
Restaurants, hotels and theaters had to install accessible areas for those in wheelchairs.
Employers had to make special "accommodations" (arrangements) wherever possible to permit disabled Americans to work.
Bush's Foreign Policy
The Invasion of Panama, 1989
Bush took steps against Panamanian dictator & drug dealer Manuel Noriega.
Noriega was captured & restored elected leaders.
Noriega was taken to U.S., tried and convicted of drug charges,
The End of the Cold War
Eastern Europe moved from Communism to Democracy
Berlin Wall was torn down
Germany was reunited
Bush recognized Russia & other newly created independent republics.
The Gulf War, 1990
Bush's single greatest foreign policy success.
Aug, 1990, Iraq leader Saddam Hussein invaded Kuwait & captured its oil reserves
Hussein ignored the U.N. to withdraw.
Many feared Saudi Arabia was his next target
Feb. 1991, Hussein agreed to withdraw troops & pay for damages
Bush declares cease-fire, but did not remove Saddam Hussein from power.
1st major challenge after Cold War
America's success in middle east was used to initiate peace talks between Israel and its neighbors in late 1991.
1992, Bush began humanitarian efforts for war-torn Somalia in NE Africa.
Air lifted food & supplies
People battle starvation
Local warlords & bandits stole food & supplies
Bush sent troops to handle issue
The Clinton Presidency, 1993 - 2001
Bill Clinton, poor Arkansas background
Rhodes scholar in England
Yale Law school - met wife Hillary Clinton
After law, entered politics
elected Governor of Arkansas
Election of 1992, Clinton united several different groups
Bush was not doing enough to fight recession.
3rd Party, Ross Perot, hurt Bush's campaign
Won 20% of vote, most successful 3rd party
Clinton's Domestic Policy
Clinton promised reforms
Difficulty with Congress support
Difficulty with passing early budgets.
1st budget limited federal spending, increased income taxes to 40% on richest Americans, cut taxes for low-income Americans and introduced a federal gasoline tax.
Guaranteed health insurance to every American
Hillary was appointed to head a task force.
No plans were passed by Congress.
Many feared long waits, and health care rationing.
Supporters were shocked that many Americans lacked health care
Failure to pass healthcare bill was major defeat for Clinton.
supported welfare reform, free trade, lower taxes on middle class, tough on crime.
Success with funds for police, 5 day waiting period for buying handguns, more money for prisons and banned sales of assault weapons.
Easier to export computers & high-tech goods, eliminated Cold War restrictions.
Nation's computer-related industries helped to restore the nation's economy.
Reduction of military spending
End of Clinton Presidency - unemployment was down, consumer spending was up and bus profits were high.
Economy was at its best in U.S. History.
Clinton balanced budget & had a surplus.
The Contract with America
1994, Newt Gingrich, Republican Speaker of the House.
Proposed a program called the Contract with America.
Long contract from Republicans to try and regain control of House of Representatives.
Argued govt was too powerful.
Govt has taken away responsibility from families & individuals.
Restore balance between govt & its citizens
Basically a promise to American of what the Republicans would do if they were elected.
Many concerned the conduct o Congress.
Impeachment & Scandal
2nd term of office, subject of sex scandal with Monica Lewinsky
1999, 2nd time in history, Senate conducted an impeachment trial of a President.
Sex affair between Clinton and White House intern
Clinton lied under oath.
Impeachment - removing the President from office requires a formal accusation, by House of Representatives and a trial and conviction by the Senate.
Voting fell short of required 2/3 and once again Americans felt they could not trust elected leaders.
Clinton's Foreign Policy
Little experience in foreign affairs
Some of Clinton's greatest successes were in his foreign policy.
Yugoslavia, Bosnia, Kosovo
Several ethnic groups lived in this area,Balkan Peninsula, and the Cold War renewed ethnic tensions in Yugoslavia, which divided into several separate states.
Fierce fighting between Muslim Bosnians & Christian Serbs.
"Ethnic cleansing" - Serbs attempted to murder Muslims in Bosnia & Kosovo.
Europeans were shocked when genocide appeared, like the holocaust
Clinton helped negotiate peace in Bosnia.
NATO airstrikes Serbia
Ended further blood shed
Participation in International Organizations
Clinton pushed NAFTA
Global cooperation helps all countries
Helps spread Americans brand of Democracy
Can also drag U.S. into problems around the world
Also very Expensive.
GATT, General Agreement on Tariffs & Trade (1947)
replaced by World Trade Organization in 1994.
established rules for global trade & helps to settle trade dispute.
WTO has accelerated globalization.
Clinton tried to push human rights & democracy with China, but this idea failed
1999, US missiles hit Chinese embassy in Yugoslavia
China believed it to be no accident
Chinese protested US embassy in Beijing
Economic relationship did not stop
Clinton's other Foreign Policies Initiatives
Bush & Clinton maintained friendship with Russian President Boris Yeltsin.
Followed Bush's lead in working towards peace between Israel & it's earlier opponents, the PLO & Jordan.
Unable to end fighting
Withdrew troops when no further progress was in sight.
Haitian military leaders threw out Jean Bertrand Aristide, a priest who won U.N.-supervised free elections in 1990.
Clinton sent troops and returned Aristride to power in 1994.
Dropped U.S. troops to pressure Saddam Hussein to withdraw troops from along Kuwait border.
Allowed UN inspectors to enter Iraq to continue looking for nuclear & biological weapons.
Co-Founder of Microsoft
recognized potential of personal computer
1980s, developed operating software
Created Wal-Mart & Sam's Club
Pioneered "giveaway promotion" in cosmetics
Started from word of mouth
used beautiful models to sell products.
1st African-American Billionaire
Founder of BET
2003, owner of NBA team Charlotte Bobcats
Identified Hispanics as important group for advertising & politics
Founded largest Hispanic advertising agency in the U.S.
Through hard work & determination the American dream continues to be attainable even today.