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The past (1): Past simple Vs. Present perfect

A description on the differences between the past simple grammar form and the present perfect grammar form.

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Transcript of The past (1): Past simple Vs. Present perfect

Past Simple Vs Present Perfect Have you walked along a riverside similar to the one on the photograph?

When did you do it? Present Perfect Tense Have you ever listened to classical music before?

Where did you hear it? Present Perfect Tense FORM: have / has + past participle

Affirmative: I have seen the film before.
She has seen the film before.

Interrogative: Have you seen the film before?
Has she seen the film before?

Negative: They haven’t seen the film before.
He hasn’t seen the film before. He has been to London.  Now he is here. He can tell you wonderful stories about London.
He has been in London for two weeks.  He is still in London.
Where’s Peter? He has gone to London.  He is in Italy or on his way to London. Note the difference Contrast between Present Perfect and Past Simple Gerald has bought a new car. He bought it last week.
Have you met Ray? – Yes, I met him when we were students.
My parents have been to India. In fact, they went there twice last year.
Has anybody phoned me? – Yes, Joyce phoned an hour ago.
I’ve seen that man before. – Really? When did you see him? We use definite expressions with the Past simple tense: yesterday, last week, … ago etc, while we don’t use definite time expressions with the Present perfect tense.
I have been to France three times

When did you go there last?
I went there last Summer Contrast between Present Perfect and Past Simple I have never been to Japan. Have you ever been there? 2- Personal experiences: It is used to express personal experiences, there is not a definite time given. The time expressions ever and never are very often used with this meaning Present Perfect Tense Why are they so happy?

They have just won a prize so they are really pleased Uses of the present perfect Present Perfect Tense 1- Recent events: It is used to describe recent events without a definite time. The idea of time or place in the speaker’s mind makes the event recent. A time expression may emphasize recentness: just, recently, lately I haven’t drunk anything for two days. I am terribly thirsty I haven’t eaten since yesterday morning. I am really hungry 3- It is used to express actions that started in the past and continue to the present, the time period is not finished. We use for and since with this meaning. We use for with periods of time and since with points of time. Present Perfect Tense How do you know? The autumn has already arrived PAST SIMPLE TENSE: REGULAR and IRREGULAR VERBS Did you travel by boat last holidays?
Yes, I did.
Did you see any dolphins?
No I didn’t. Interrogative:
Use did + subject + a base form verb to make the past simple interrogative. Did you play sport last Summer? Yesterday I went for a swim. The Simple Past Tense is used 1.To talk about actions that happened at a specific time in the past. You state when it happened using a time adverb (yesterday, last Month.):
“Last year I took my exams”.

2. It can be used to describe events that happened over a period of time in the past but not now:
"I lived in Asia for two years."

3. It is also used to talk about habitual or repeated actions that took place in the past:
"When I was a child we always went to the seaside on bank holidays." I went to Paris last July Affirmative:
Irregular past verb forms must be learned because they don’t follow any rule:
Go went
Come came
Buy bought
Drink drank
Eat ate
Find found
See saw Simple Past Tense: Irregular verbs I worked hard last weekend PAST SIMPLE TENSE: REGULAR VERBS Affirmative:
The past tense of regular verbs is formed by adding –d or –ed to the base form of the verb. I worked in a shop last year, I lived in a big house when I was younger. My friends travelled to Saudi Arabia two years ago The Simple Past Tense Time expressions:
Yesterday, last month, last year, last time, … ago, in ... I didn’t live in a flat during my last Summer holidays.
I didn’t go to Berlin last July Use did not or didn’t + a base form verb to make the past simple tense negative. I didn’t work last summer


Negative: Past simple Vs Present perfect Use
In British English, the use of Simple Past and Present Perfect is quite strict. As soon as a time expression in the past is given, you have to use Simple Past. If there are no signal words, you must decide if we just talk about an action in the past or if its consequence in the present is important.

Note that the following explanations and exercises refer to British English only. In American English, you can normally use Simple Past instead of Present Perfect. We cannot accept this in our exercises, however, as this would lead to confusions amongst those who have to learn the differences. Certain time in the past or just / already / yet? Do you want to express that an action happened at a certain time in the past (even if it was just a few seconds ago) or that an action has just / already / not yet happened? Simple Past certain time in the past Example: I phoned Mary 2 minutes ago. Present Perfect Simple just / already / not yet Example: I have just phoned Mary.
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