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Madeleine Student

on 2 February 2017

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Transcript of SYRIAN WAR

Assad, a Shiite Muslim, rules over a Sunni majority...
The call to ceasefire

March 2011 - Present Day
How did this conflict begin? Why has the war lasted?
Major Events Of This Ongoing War
Recent Developments
Early War:

Current War:
- A little more then a week the US and Russia called for a cease fire
- To last 7 days beginning Monday the 12th of September
- Meant to allow rescue and supply groups to reach besieged areas in Syria
-Unfortunately this ceasefire motivated al-Assad to bomb several rebel held areas in Aleppo before Monday, killing over 300,000.
Presentation by Anna Mcclow, Brigid Hanley, Clara Macedo, and Devin Bright
Who is fighting?
Is peace a possibility?
The Syrian Civil War
ongoing for almost 5 years.
The original perpetrators are still fighting.
Other powers have joined since.
The civil war has been going on for years now and has not had many good attempts to bring it to an end.
There has been a ceasefire put in place to stop the fighting
There have been 3 meetings at the UN to try and stop the fighting but none have worked
"In 2011, Syria signed an Arab League proposal aimed at stopping the fight between government forces and protester but violence continued and the following month, the Arab League suspended its mission in the country.”1
This article is biased because it is pro-American which means it doesn't show a lot of what is actually happening in the middle east
“State Department Officials Call for U.S. Military Action against Assad Regime." CNN. Cable News Network. Web. 18 Sept. 2016.

Need to Know: People Profiles
Need to Know: Groups
The three main groups involved in this conflict are:
1. Pro-government
2. Anti-government (Rebel groups)
3. Extremist (ISIS)
Other important organizations include the Commission for International Justice and Accountability and the Red Cross.
President Bashar al-Assad
President Assad took power in 2000.

Succeeded his father, President Hafez al-Assad.

Began rule with openness to progress in political freedom and freedom of expression.

Grew wary of the people's speed and excitement at the progress (protests of thousands of people) + many once 'impregnable' oppressive governments such as Egypt's and Libya's being destroyed.

Attempted to slow or stop any further developments.

Reverted back to dictatorship of father.

Committed many crimes on his own people: Created and signed policies that allowed inhumane treatment in hospitals and interrogation rooms as well as committed chemical warfare on innocent civilians.

Syrian Civil War
Pro-Government Syria
Support Comes From:
Leading airstrikes against 'ISIS'.
Really mostly bombing the rebel territories.
Want to keep Assad in power because of an alliance that allows Russia to maintain Middle Eastern influence and their military and commercial investments in the area.
Have a chance to further their reach of power.
US and other countries against ISIS angered by the attacks against citizens and part in the war by Russia.
Iran and Lebanon:
Provided troops and weaponry.
Stay in power.
Defeat the rebel groups who want more freedom and better living conditions.
Defeat ISIS who wants to carve out part of Syria for their new country.
Keep power with Shiite muslims.
Anti-Government Rebels
Supported comes from:

- March 2011, security forces attempt to crush dissent, killing handfuls of people. Assad blames other countries powers for the unrest
- July 2012, A bomb attack took place on the National Security building in Damascus, killing defense minister Daoud Rajha and his number two Assef Shawkat, who is also Assad's brother-in-law
- December 2014, the Syrian government
says it will not allow the WHO
organization to deliver medical supplies
to opposition-held parts of Syria
previously off limits to aid workers,
including Aleppo
-March 2015, Jabhat al-Nusra and other
rebel groups donate explosives Aleppo's
Air Force Headquarters. The military chief
of the group, Abu Homam al-Shami was
killed, along with 3 other senior members
in an airstrike
Saudi Arabia
USA: Condemned the Syrian government for crimes against their own people.
Along with other countries are working to charge the Assad regime with crimes under the Commission for International Justice and Accountability.
Teaching Syrian rebels to smuggle out useful documents in a criminal case. Over 600,000 documents have made it out of Syria.
Jabhat Fateh al-Sham (formerly al-Qadea): There is an uneasy support here. The group split from al-Qadea, but still has a focus on aiding rebels in fighting and dethroning Assad. Whether or not the end goal for most Syrians and for the extremist group is the same is up to question.
Supreme Military Council of The Free Syrian Army:
Free Syrian Army was formed by army deserters in Turkey.
Held little power on the ground until 2012 when a more concrete Supreme Military Council was created.
They aim to be more moderate and appealing than the extremist Jabhat Fateh al-Sham and other groups.
Islamic Front:
2013- 7 Islamist groups announce they are creating largest rebel faction (45,000 fighters)
Goal to take down Assad and create Islamic state.
Not part of ISIS or al-Nursa but willing to work with.
Syrian Islamic Liberation Front:
Uneasy alliance of 20 rebel groups that provide a large group of fighters against the current government.
Unseat President Assad
Sunni majority
Have more religious and political freedom.
Support Comes From:
Not many places.
While ISIS is attracting a lot of foreign attention, most other rebel groups and governments both in the Middle East and all over the world are fighting against them.
Territory shrunk since beginning of fighting against in 2015.
Carve out their own country governed by conservative, extremist Sunni Sharia law.
Want to revert to the original law from the time of the origin of the religion.

Unseat Assad so that Syria can become part of this independent state.

Bias In Our Information
The sources we used are mostly written from a Western perspective; meaning that they don't include as many of the opinions of people actually involved in both sides.
We were using the US opinion of the anti-Assad, and while we included that some civilians support him, the main attitude towards both Assad and ISIS are very negative.
Here are a few accounts from people currently living with the conflict in Syria:

"There was a big shelling the previous Eid, which hit an open area and it killed lots of children. We hear shelling, bombing and this kind of stuff, and we got used to it, but when we hear there is a cease-fire, we say, “God protect us.”' -Samsam (26, Aleppo)
We hear cease-fire and we think good, but this means a change in the routine of war which is terrifying for people living in it.
"Do you believe there’s something called a truce? Do you think they are serious? ... They are all a bunch of criminals."
People don't trust in the US and Russia, or the rebels and the government.
A guard hit him all the way to the toilets, but he went in alone. When he opened the first stall, he saw a pile of corpses, battered and blue. He found two more in the second stall, emaciated and missing their eyes. There was another body by the sink. Hamada came out in panic, but the guard sent him back in and told him, “Pee on top of the bodies.”
However, this is just one piece of the reason why the Syrian Civil War began:
1. People protest their oppressive government of a different religion.
2. Syrian government becomes worried about actually losing power as protests grow by the thousands and other once-deemed impregnable governments like Egypt's fall.
3. Crisis cell formed. Job is to address all methods of unrest in the most effective way possible, even if extremely inhumane. Daily raids on protesters begin.
4. Armed rebel groups form.
5. Civil war officially breaks out.
In 2012, things are not looking good for Assad. The US condemns Syrian government and many important people in his cabinet are killed or join the rebels.
Works Cited:
Barnard, Anne, and Hwaida Saad. "The View From Syria as a Cease-Fire Takes Effect." The New York Times. The New York Times, 12 Sept. 2016. Web. 12 Sept. 2016.

Bogahni, Priyanka. "FRONTLINE." PBS. PBS, 11 Feb. 2016. Web. 13 Sept. 2016.

Botelho, Greg. "Syrian War: Russian Leaders Open to Assad's Exit?" CNN. Cable News Network, 3 Nov. 2015. Web

Chulov, Martin. "Syria: Bitter Foes Weigh up Chance of Peace, but Prepare for War to Rage on." The Guardian. Guardian News and Media, 11 Sept. 2016. Web. 13 Sept. 2016. <https://www.theguardian.com/world/2016/sep/10/syria-peace-ceasefire-deal-us-russia-doubts-remain>.

Dorell, Oren. "Syria Cease-fire: What's Different This Time." USA Today. Gannett, 12 Sept. 2016. Web. 12 Sept. 2016.

Dur, Jessica, and O. "Why Americans Should Care about War-torn Syria." USA Today. Gannett, 12 Sept. 2016. Web. 12 Sept. 2016.

Jazeera, Al. "Syria's War: Use of Chemical Gas to Be Investigated." - News from Al Jazeera. Web. 14 Sept. 2016

News, BBC. "Syria: The Story of the Conflict." BBC News. N.p., n.d. Web. 12 Sept. 2016.
< http://www.bbc.com/news/world-middle-east-26116868>.

PittsburghPG. "A Sign for Syria: The U.S.-Russia Plan Could Steer the War to End." Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. Web. 12 Sept. 2016.

Slim, Randa. "Can Anyone Stop the Syrian War?" Foreign Policy Can Anyone Stop the Syrian War Comments. N.p., 12 Sept. 2016. Web. 12 Sept. 2016.

"Syria's War, Explained in Graphics." CNN. Cable News Network, 21 Oct. 2015. Web. 13 Sept. 2016.

Unknown, Unknown. "War in Syria: Cessation of Hostilities Due to Start at Sunset." BBC News. BBC, 12 Sept. 2016. Web. 12 Sept. 2016.

Abboud, Samer. "Analysis: Russia-US Deal Unlikely to End Syria's War." - News from Al Jazeera. N.p., n.d. Web. 20 Sept. 2016.

"Al-Nusra Rebranding: What You Need to Know." CNN. Cable News Network, n.d. Web. 20 Sept. 2016.

Beck, By John. "Syria After Four Years: Timeline of a Conflict | VICE News." VICE News RSS. N.p., n.d. Web. 20 Sept. 2016.

News, BBC. "Guide to the Syrian Rebels." BBC News. N.p., n.d. Web. 20 Sept. 2016.

News, BBC. "Syria Profile - Timeline." BBC News. N.p., n.d. Web. 20 Sept. 2016.

"State Department Officials Call for U.S. Military Action against Assad Regime." CNN. Cable News Network, n.d. Web. 20 Sept. 2016.

"Syria Profile-leaders." BBC News. BBC, 20 Sept. 2016. Web. 20 Sept. 2016.

Image Sources:

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