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Visible Learning and Quality Feedback
Transcript of Visible Learning and Quality Feedback
--Respectful relation teacher & student and... Some thoughts on how we provide feedback interpreting findings An effect-size of d=1.0 indicates an increase of one standard deviation...
A one standard deviation increase is typically associated with advancing children's achievement by two to three years* Effect size: How is it calculated?
• Effect size = (Average post –Average pre)/ spread (sd) When teacher can see the learning through the eyes and in the eyes of the student. It's all about
trusting relationships and
'oodles of feedback'. The biggest effect on student learning occurs:
• when teachers become learners of their own teaching,
• when students become their own teachers = (Visible Learners}
Eventually they become “Assessment Capable Learners” These Visible learners= Assessment Capable Learners can:
• Be their own teachers
• Articulate their own learning
• Talk about how they are learning Teachers have impact and Lead their students
Hattie claims that...
"Adjusting your leadership and teaching practices by using effect sizes....
– Your actions have impact! Teacher means
Paedagogus Learning how to track the specific impact on students’ achievement
– It’s not what works but what works best! Barometer of Effectiveness
Greater than 0.4 = Zone of desired effects
0.15 to 0.4 = Teacher effects
0 to 0.15 = Developmental effects
Less than 0 = Reverse effects "Visible Learning": What is it? HOW??
The teacher must know when
1. to experiment
2. learn from the experience,
3. learn to monitor
4. seek and give feedback
5. know to try alternate learning strategies when others do not work. Major sources of variance in student achievement:
Student: 50% of variance in student achievement
School: 5-10% (principals, other leaders an influence)
Peer Effects: 5-10%
SO... the whole story
Direct instruction 0.59
Time on task 0.59
Study skills 0.59
Acceleration of gifted 0.60 EXCITING
Concept mapping 0.52
Peer influences 0.53 GETTING THERE Enrichment on gifted 0.39
Integrated curriculum programs 0.39
Self-concept on achievement 0.43
Frequent/effects of testing 0.46
Early intervention 0 .47
Motivation on learning 0.48 AVERAGE Finances 0.23
Summer school 0 .23
Exercise/relaxation 0.28 TYPICAL AVERAGE TEACHER TERRITORY
Extra-curricula programs 0.17
Family structure 0.18
Class size 0.21 NOT WORTH IT YET
Distance education 0.09
Ability grouping 0.11 THE WELL BELOWS
Mobility (shifting schools) -0.34
Summer vacation -.09 THE DISASTERS
The approaches to teaching THE SIX FACTORS How do I know this is working?
How can I compare this with that?
What is the merit and worth of this influence on learning?
What is the magnitude of the effect?
What evidence would convince you that you are wrong? HATTIE’S QUESTIONS Self-report grades 1.44
Quality of teaching 0.77
Prior achievement 0.73
Teacher-student relationships 0.72
Creativity programs 0.70 THE WINNERS Parental Involvement 0.55
Peer tutoring 0.55
Goals - challenging 0.56
Mastery learning 0.57
Home environment 0.57
Providing worked examples 0.57 LET’S HAVE THEM
Principals/school leaders on student
Ability grouping for gifted students 0.30
Teacher positive expectations 0.37 CLOSE TO AVERAGE How do I know this is working?
How can I compare this with that?
What is the merit and worth of this influence on learning?
What is the magnitude of the effect?
What evidence would convince you that you are wrong? HATTIE’S QUESTIONS This improves
---the rate of learning by 50%, or
---a correlation between some variables (i.e, amount of homework) and achievement of approximately r=0.50. When implementing a new program, an effect-size of 1.0 would mean that, on average, students receiving that treatment would exceed 84% of students not receiving that treatment. and the impact If the Teacher is the Key...then --Understand learning intentions
--Are challenged by success criteria
--Develop a range of learning strategies
--Know when they are not progressing
--Visibly teach themselves STUDENTS NEED TO… --Clear learning intentions
--Challenging success criteria
--Range of learning strategies
--Know when students are not
--Visibly learns themselves TEACHERS NEED TO… ------Passion reflects the thrills as well as the frustrations of learning.
It requires more than
---acts of skilled teaching or engaged students to make the difference –
it requires a love of the discipline being taught. IT IS CLICHÉE…BUT TEACHING IS A LABOR OF LOVE The act of teaching requires deliberate interventions to ensure that there is cognitive change in the student. The key ingredients are:
----Awareness of the learning intentions
----Knowing when a student is successful
----Having sufficient understanding of the student’s understanding
----Know enough about the content to provide meaningful and challenging experiences WHAT TEACHERS DO, MATTERS Feedback HOW Quality Feedback List the ways in which teachers in your school provide feedback to students about their learning.
Which of the ways help students improve their learning?
Which ways are evaluative and which are descriptive? (Tunstall & Gipps research)
What is the role of students in the feedback process? How can this be enhanced? Feedback in our school Create a learning journal in which students can reflect on and review their learning.
It could include plenary activities, a target setting chart, aims and goals etc. Learning Journal
Some practical strategies for effective formative feedback to try out in the classroom
(Adapted from Mike Gershon’s Assessment for Learning Tools) Findings from Clarke's research:
too many criteria making it very difficult for specific feedback to be given
too much information in their marking which students find overwhelming and difficult to take in.
Clarke suggests that:
when giving written feedback, teachers highlight two or three successes in the student’s work and one area where some improvement is necessary. Clarke (2001) Findings from research showed that:
Students given only marks made no gain from the first to the second lesson.
Students given only comments scored on average 30% higher.
Giving marks alongside comments cancelled the beneficial effects of the comments.
If you are going to grade or mark a piece of work, you are wasting your time writing careful diagnostic comments. Marks versus comments
“Do you know what to do next?”
“Is that enough help?”
“What will you do if you get stuck again?” Check the adequacy of the feedback Feedback conversations are most effective when initiated by the learner.
Teacher and student should make the decision about the level of support which is needed.
Not enough, and the student is still in the dark, and doesn’t know how to improve.
Too much and the student doesn’t have to try.
Ask the student what support he/she needs:
“Is that enough or do you need an example?” Students as active participants in the learning Reminder prompts:
How could you make the description of the character more striking? Remember the rule about circles we talked about?
Why don’t you try using a simile to describe how he eats? What about the rule which says that the area of a circle is ∏r²?
Why don’t you use a simile to describe your character? Try ‘He gulped down his food like a pelican’. Calculate using ∏r². Multiply 27 x 27 then …
How we provide suggestions for
improvement is critical in ‘closing the
gap’ for students.
Improvement is more likely if we use the kind of feedback prompt that best meets the need of the student. Descriptive feedback:
focuses on identified learning outcomes and makes specific reference to the student’s achievement.
looks towards improvement.
An example of descriptive feedback:
“That’s a good introduction because you have covered the main points we discussed at the beginning.
Now … which points do you think you should expand on?” Descriptive feedback
Evaluative feedback involves a judgment by the teacher based on implicit or explicit norms.
Evaluative feedback may take the form of:
Approval: “That’s a good essay.” “You’ve done well.”
Disapproval: “That’s not good enough.”
Reward: Gold stars
Punishment: “Write it out again.” Evaluative feedback focus on what is being learnt (learning intention) and how students should go about it (success criteria)
occur as the students are doing the learning
provide information on how and why the student has or has not met the criteria
provide strategies to help the student to improve Effective feedback should… Effective feedback to learners:
is best initiated by the learner
focuses on the learning intention of the task
occurs as the students are doing the learning
provides information on how and why the student understands and misunderstands
provides strategies to help the student to improve
assists the student to understand the goals of the learning. Feedback… in summary Feedback can be delivered in different ways. Two examples of feedback ‘sandwiches’ are –
Constructive criticism with
explanation of how to improve
Contextual statement –
Interactive statement e.g. a question based on the work Feedback Sandwich Comment-only marking provides students with a focus for progression instead of a reward or punishment for their ego (as a grade does).
Comments should make it clear how the student can improve.
Plan activities and work with feedback in mind – let the design assist the process. Comment-only marking Comments on students’ work should act as guidance showing how the student can improve.
Develop this by asking students to write in the same way when peer assessing work. Feedback for improvement When feedback is given in writing, some students:
have difficulty understanding the points the teacher is trying to make
are unable to read the teacher’s writing
can’t process the feedback and understand what to do next.
Asking a student to tell you what they think you are trying to say to them is the best way to check this out. Written feedback Clarke (2003) suggests three types of prompts for providing feedback, dependent on the needs of the student:
Remember, prompts need to be focused around the learning intention of the task. Types of descriptive feedback prompt Most teacher feedback interactions observed by Tunstall and Gipps were at the evaluative end of the continuum.
Keep the typology in mind when giving feedback to students.
Descriptive feedback is focused on improvement.
A trusted colleague can spend time in your classroom and write down the types of feedback you give. What types of feedback do you give?
An emphasis on evaluative feedback can affect how students feel about themselves.
It can make the good students feel
better (and possibly complacent)
and the less able students feel worse (and the more sure that they will never be able to succeed.) “To be effective, feedback needs to be clear, purposeful, meaningful and compatible with students’ prior knowledge, and to provide logical connections.”
“If feedback is directed at the right level, it can assist students to comprehend, engage, or develop effective strategies to process the information intended to be learnt.”
“Thus, when feedback is combined with effective instruction in classrooms, it can be very powerful in enhancing learning.” John Hattie clarifies in Visible Learning (2009) For feedback to be effective for students, they need the following:
an understanding of the desired goal
evidence about their present position in
relation to that goal
guidance on the way to close the gap between the two Effective feedback
Create time in the lesson to talk to individual students.
Have a written dialogue in the students’ book.
Use a comment tracker or target sheet to formalise the dialogue in a workbook. Feedback follow-up Reinforce the focus on redrafting and comment-only marking by insisting on seeing evidence of student self assessment on their work before you look at it. (You’ll have to allow time for this). Self assessment In 1996 Pat Tunstall and Caroline Gipps developed a typology of teacher feedback by recording and classifying the feedback given by teachers to their students.
They classified feedback as either:
evaluative – involving a value judgment
descriptive – describing what the student said or did, and providing guidance for improvement A typology of feedback Use lesson time to redraft work.
This allows students time to focus on the feedback for improvement they have been given.
It also reinforces the value of the feedback and allows them to work at it in a supportive environment. Allow students time to act on feedback Feedback in the 21st Century Email Wikis Wikis and Blogs E Portfolios Creativity Suite 4 Microsoft Office 2007 Microsoft Office 2007 Students can accept or reject suggestions made Captivate 4 Pdf documents can be shared for reviewed and comments made using a variety of editing tools Adobe Acrobat Professional In NSW schools use many applications that can via the local Dep. of Education can be used by students in their laptops (minimising costs for families).
A full list of the software applications available on the student laptops can be accessed at:
www.det.nsw.edu.au/deptresources/majorproducts/dernsw/features/software Software applications Blogs Captivate 4
What is different about assessment with the Digital Education Revolution? What remains the same?
What are the positives of E Assessment in Teaching and Learning?
What issues will I face in a school / faculty setting? How can teachers incorporate this in the Digital Education Revolution?
Beginning thoughts and questions. Drawing Tools Text Box Call out box Highlight Text Stamp Text Edit Sticky Note E Portfolios – Microsoft One Note Further information and training opportunities on One Note can be accessed on the TaLE website at:
http://office.microsoft.com/en-au/onenote/FX100487701033.aspx Further information and training opportunities on Creativity Suite 4 applications including Photoshop, Premier Elements and Flash CS4 can be accessed on the TaLE website at:
http://www.adobe.com/products/creativesuite/ Further information and training opportunities on Adobe Acrobat Professional applications can be accessed on the TaLE website at:
http://www.adobe.com/products/acrobatpro/ ONLINE Teaching FACE 2 FACE