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The Campaign for Independence (1922 - 1935)
Transcript of The Campaign for Independence (1922 - 1935)
Mondejar, Mary Rose
Sinlao, Rosemarie The Campaign for Independence (1922 - 1935) The
Mission Warren G. Harding Colectivistas After the First World War in 1914 - 1918, the Philippine Legislature created the Independence Commission whose purpose was to study ways and means of negotiating for Philippine Independence. The
Hare - Hawes -
Cutting Law the new president of the United States in elected on 1920 who appointed the former general, William Cameron Forbes, and a former commander of the American forces in Mindanao, General Leonard Wood, to head the mission to determine whether or not the Filipinos were prepared for independence. American leaders were divided on the issue of the Philippine Independence The Republicans were for an indefinite retention of the colony The Democrats were willing to let go of the Philippines as soon as a stable government was in place. The Filipino leaders, on the other hand, wavered and at this time clashed on their goals - immediate and complete independence. Wood and Forbes interviewed many people to determine the real effects of Filipinization. The result of the mission's studies severely criticized the Harrison administration for alleged incompetence. The report to President Harding stated that: Many Harrison's policies especially those dealing with finance, banking, and currency, were unwise. Too much politics by the Filipinos in government resulted in bossism, graft, and mismanagement. Most of the Christian Filipino were for independence, but non-Christian Filipinos who constituted about 10% of the total population, were for continued American occupation. William Cameron Forbes Gen. Leonard Wood Maximo Kalaw commented that the issue of "the incapacity of the Filipinos to carry on any decent form of government" has served the Americans' political needs. According to him, without any clear criteria for capacity for self-rule, the Americans could delay Philippine independent at their own will or whim. Wood Becomes Governor Wood showed from the beginning that he was different from Harrison. He began to exercise the governor-general's powers once more. He antagonized Manuel L. Quezon and Sergio Osmeña, the two most powerful political leaders at that time. With Governor Wood's tight hold on the government, the Republicans reversed Harrison's Filipinization policy The Conflict Between Osmeña and Quezon Sergio Osmeña J3s - BSIT The foremost Filipino political leader. Taft described him as the number two man in the government, second only to the governor-general. Because of his wielded vast powers, the governor-general often consulted him. Sergio S. Osmeña, Sr.
Speaker of the First Philippine Assembly When Quezon became President of the Senate, he thought that he should outrank Osmeña. He believed that the leadership of the Filipino participation in the government should go to the Senate President and not with the Speaker of the House. But he did not fight this time and waited for the opportune moment to challenge the Speaker Manuel L. Quezon
President of the Senate Assembly
President of the Commonwealth In 1921, Quezon believe that the time had come to challenge Osmeña for the leadership of the Filipino people, he criticize Osmeña's leadership. He complained about Osmeña's being dictator and getting all the honors for which other Filipino statesmen also worked for. Osmeña firmly denied these accusations. Unipersonalistas Quezon formed group within Nacionalista Party, which believed that the political leadreship should be exercised collectively, that no one person should dictate policies but instead all should participate in their formulation Osmeña's group believed that the leadership should exercised by one person, not by a group. In the election of 1922, the issue between Osmeña and Quezon was clarified. Quezon's group won more seats than Osmeña's group. Democrata Party, a third party successfully challenge both colectivista and unipersonalistas. That leads to Quezon and Osmeña to reconciled and merged to prevent a further weakening of their parties for the 1985 elections. The Cabinet Crisis In 1923, Manuel L. Quezon, now the most prominent political leader of the Filipinos, had a quarrel with the governor. The cause of the quarrel concerned an American detective in the Manila Police Department, by the name of Ray Conley. Quezon took advantage of the Conley case as he and other political leaders, attacked Wood and branded him as anti-Filipino. They also accused Wood of interfering even with the smallest detail of governance in order to curtail the rights of the Filipinos. As a result, the Filipino members of the Cabinet and the members of the Council of the State resigned. Wood accused them challenging the authority of the United States and he accepted their resignation. This mass resignation of the Filipino members of the Cabinet and the Council of State constituted what was known as the Cabinet Crisis. Other Conflicts with Wood Board of control Veto Power The board of control was composed of the governor-general, the Senate President, and the Speaker of the House. It managed the affairs of government corporations. Under the setup, the governor-general was always outvoted by the Filipino members of the board. *veto - the constitutional right of the president to reject a legislative enactment or resolution Quezon and Osmeña accused Wood of exercising his veto power without any restriction. They pointed out since Wood become governor, he had vetoed more than 120 bills submitted to him by Philippine Legislature. Wood answered that he vetoed them because they were either unwise, illegal, or defective. The conflict with Wood ended only with his death in 1927. Independence Missions First Independence Mission Second Independence Mission Was sent to the United States in 1918 but because of the world situation resulting from the recently concluded world war, the mission did not achieve anything. Was sent to the United States to convince the American Congress that the conditions set by the Jones Law, as prerequisite for independence had been met In the succeeding years, particularly in 1922 - 1928 and in 1930, the Philippine independence missions were a failure. In 1930, an Independence Congress met in Manila and passed a resolution favoring the early grant of independence to the Philippines. The
Osmeña - Roxas
Mission In 1931, through the recommendation of Quezon, another independence mission was sent to the United States. It was headed by Senator Sergio S. Osmeña and Speaker Manuel A. Roxas. This mission was known as the Os-Rox Mission. It was instructed by the Legislature to work for the early grant of the Philippine independence. American groups that were favorable to Philippine Independence. American farm Group Which believed that Philippine agricultural products, like sugar and coconut oil, which were entering the United States free of duty, competed with American farm products. To eliminate competition, the American farm group lobbied for independence for the Philippines and for Philippine farm products to be taxed upon entering the United States. American Labor Leaders Believed that Filipino laborers that were entering the United States without any restriction were also competing with American laborers because Filipino laborers accepted low wages, driving out American laborers, whose higher standard of living required them to demand for higher wages. The group wanted the Philippines to be independent so that in the future the number of Filipino laborers could be limited and thereby eliminate labor competition. American Isolationists Believed that if the Philippines were given independence, the United States would not have to go to war with Japan. As a result of the intensive campaign of the Os – Rox mission and the helped extended by the American pro-independence groups, the U.S. Congress passed the Hare – Hawes – Cutting Act. This law provided the following:
The end of a ten-year period, to be named as the Commonwealth Period, the Philippine Independence would be granted.
The Commonwealth government to be established in the Philippines was to be autonomous, except that the foreign affairs and currency o the Philippines would still under the President of the United States.
There was to be an American High Commissioner who would act as the President’s representative in the Philippines. Fifty Filipino immigrants would be allowed to enter the United States every year for a period of ten years.
Some Philippine products, like sugar, oil, abaca, and other fibers were to enter the United States in limited quantities, while U.S. products were allowed free entry to the Philippines.
It also authorized the United States to retain land or other property designated by the President of the United States for “military and other reservations." Originally President Herbert Hoover vetoed this bill, but the Congress overturned his veto and pass the bill into law. The
Mission When Quezon was informed about the passage of the Hare – Hawes – Cutting Law, he thought that it was not a good law. His reason was that the law, as a whole, was disadvantageous to the Filipinos on the following grounds:
The provisions on trade relations did not ensure economic security for the Philippines after independence;
The immigration quota was offensive and one-sided;
The powers of the American High Commissioner were “too indefinite”; and
The retention of the military, naval and other reservation was “inconsistent with true independence” that violate national dignity or sovereignty. After the rejection of Hare – Hawes – Cutting Law, Quezon went to United States to get another law, in which, in his view, would be better than Hare – Hawes – Cutting Law. But later in 1933, he realized that the chances of having better law passed were nil. Tyding-McDuffie Act – was signed by President Franklin Delano Roosevelt on March 24, 1934 with one revision: “the retention of naval reservation and fueling stations” instead of “the retention of military and other reservations.” Framing
the Constitution The Tyding-McDuffie Act provided for the framing constitution for the Commonwealth government. July 30, 1934 – the Constitutional Convention was inaugurated with Claro M. Recto, a learned scholar, lawyer, poet, and parliamentarian, as president. February 8, 1935 – the convention approved the Constitution.
March 23, 1935 – President Franklin D. Roosevelt, after reading the Constitution and seeing that there were no objectionable provisions included, approved it.
May 14, 1935 – the Filipino people approved the constitution in plebiscite. June 16, 1935 – an election was held. Quezon and Osmeña ran in the same ticket and won as president and vice president, respectively.
November 15, 1935 – the Commonwealth was inaugurated in front of the Legislative Building in Manila. Women
Suffrage *suffrage – the right to vote in on election.
1902 – Clemencia Lopez appealed for Philippine independence while studying in the United States. Pensionadas – Filipino women, despite the American attempts to convert the outwardly feminine and modest Maria Claras into carnival queens, qualified as U.S. scholars. Earlier in 1905
Led by Concepcion Felix, they formed La Gota de Leche to help bring down infant mortality.
They formed La Asociación Feminista Filipina with Conception Felix, Paz Mendoza Guazon, Rosa Sevilla Alvero, Sofia de Veyra, Natividad de Almeda, Pilar Hidalgo, to name a few, as members. 1906
La Asociación Feminista Ilonga by Pura Villanueva Kalaw was established to fight for women’s right to vote and run for public office.
They also founded and managed schools that were exclusively for women like
> Instituto de Mujeres (1900)
> Centro Escolar de Señorita (1907)
> Philippine Women’s College (1919) 1920 – Educated and efficient organizers, the suffragettes won seats in the municipal and provincial boards of education.
1933 – The right to own and dispose their paraphernal property (the property that a woman could keep as her own property in marriages, usually property inherited from her parents).
September 15, 1937 – President Quezon finally signed the women suffrage law after three decades of steadfast struggle with substantial gains. The End Reported by: Ama, Ninky Mondejar, Mary Rose Sinlao, Rosemarie J3s - BSIT Philippine History Mrs. Jocelyn Capacio