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Transcript of Charles Tittle
Deviance is based on behavioral restrictions and motivation. This is examined through control ratios.
When the control ratios are imbalanced an individual may
commit crime to try to receive some kind of rewards or
pleasure to create a better balance of controls.
Tittle focuses on acts that the majority finds criminal
* Deviance happens when there is an imbalance in control ratios and there is motivation.
* The greater the imbalance the greater the chance of deviance.
* Motivation is when one has the opportunity (capability and occasion) and is provoked.
Deviance is an attempt to change the control imbalance.
Low controls make people more vulnerable to be provoked, or more apt to becoming motivated for crime.
Total amount * Total amount
of control one of control one
is subjected to * exercises
Balance = Less likely to commit
Control Surplus =
Subjected < Exercised
Control Deficit =
Subjected > Exercised
Control Deficit + Provoked = Deviant Behavior
Subjected > Exercised + Humiliated = Pleasure/Reward
low self control + Cyber Bullying = Shop Lifting
Control Surplus + Provoked = Deviant Behavior
Subjected < Exercised + Peer Pressure = Pleasure
Absent Parents + Gang = Drugs
Crimes Easily Explained
* drug and alcohol use
* deviant sexual practices
* eating disorders
* using others’ school work and cheating
* property and general victimization
Contingencies may reduce imbalances. Anything that contributes to controls.
Contingencies are morals, religion, etc.
Baron, S. W., & Forde, D. R. (2007). Street Youth Crime: A Test Of Control Balance Theory. Justice Quarterly, 24(2), 335-355.
Fox, K., & Nobles, M. (2013). Assessing Stalking Behaviors in a Control Balance Theory Framework.Criminal Justice and Behavior, 40(7), 737-762. Retrieved November 12, 2013, from the SAGE database.
Tittle, C. R. (2004). Refining Control Balance Theory. Theoretical Criminology, 8(4), 395-428.\
ex. Parental Control : Self Control
**"Control means the ability of an individual or other kind of social entity to manipulate or block social or other actions and circumstances."
**Control ratios: which represent the total amount of control they can exercise, relative to the control to which they are subject.
400 homeless street youths- tests whether their sense of control over their living condition, perceptions of risk/thrill, and their peer support influence their participation in crime. The results showed that control influences assault and serious theft but NOT minor theft. Perception of thrill and peer support/deviant history predicted violent/property crime.
Another study with college students showed that control surpluses are associated with stalking perpetration among men BUT control deficits are associated with stalking perpetration and victimization among women.
"Brian is standing on a street corner drinking a pop. A guy named David is rushing to catch the bus and bumps into Brian just enough to cause him to spill the pop all over the sidewalk. Brian’s friend’s can’t help but laugh at him. David stops and says “Sorry man.” As David turns to continue for the bus Brian grabs his shoulder and says “You spilt my pop you asshole. Get me another one.” David tells him to “fuck off.” Brian punches him in the face and a fight breaks out between them. " (Baron, 2007)
Rate on a scale from 0 to 10 on the likelihood you would respond the same way as the subject
* Only explains common crimes
* Test subjects are rating themselves and not actually committing the same crimes
*Not enough research