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Confucianism

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So Jung Lim

on 18 March 2016

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Transcript of Confucianism

Confucianism Teachings and Core Beliefs
The Beginnings of Confucianism and its Genesis Story
Who ?
Mencius
Birthday of the Jade Emperor
* Celebrated on ninth day of the first lunar month

* While this holiday is also considered a Taoist holiday, it is important in relation to the idea of Confucianism

* The night before the holiday, people begin a fast. When midnight approaches, the patriarch of a houshold leads everyone in the home to the nearest shrine, where they all burn incense and pay respect by bowing or prostrating themselves
Present Day
* While few countries would claim Confucius as an influence on their governments, the country of Singapore still proclaims itself as the only true "Confucian State" still in existence.
* The entire country of Korea was itself once a "Confucian State" from the fourteenth century C.E. right up to the early twentieth century.
Confucius Day
* September 27, 28, or 29
* Designated to honor the birth and life of Confucius
* Teacher's Day
Confucianism
So Jung Lim
Devin McReynolds
Clayton Luker

Korean Confucius Ceremony
* The Confucian system began to become important in Korea's kingdoms in the 7th century A.D. and became the official state cult in the 14th century with the Chosun Dynasty.
* This is seen in the way families are organized, in devotion to ancestors, and in everyday behavior.
* Koreans tend to be formal when dealing with non-family members
* When they have ceremony, all family members getting together.
* Cook foods (Women)
* Getting ready for ceremony table (men)
Confucian Harmony
Self
Family
Nation
Heaven
* Confucianism has a unique understanding of selfhood, and therefore of the human condition.
* Rather than emphasizing the individuality of the self, Confucianism regards the self first and foremost as a center of human relationships.
* Self-identity is determined primarily by one's status as parent or child, ruler or subject, and so on. The human condition is thus conceived of largely in social terms.
* Though learning to be human, one continues to grow, attaining deeper and more fulfilling levels of maturity. The individual is thus engaged in an ongoing process of self-cultivation.
Culture of Confucianism
So Jung Lim
* The realm of society that receives foremost attention from every Confucian is the family.
* Confucianism emerged when the family was already the center of Chinese society, and the Confucian tradition fortified that significance.
* 3 of the 5 Constant Relationships involve family.
* The following passage, taken from a Confucian classic on li (rites and propriety), elaborates on those relationships.

* Good government has always been of much concern in the Confucian tradition.
* The nation is thought of as one great family.
* Confucianism says little regarding divinity or the afterlife, leading some to wonder whether it is actually a religion at all.
* During the time of Confucius, Heaven was in fact China's principal deity.
* For Confucius, though, it seems to have represented a universal moral force, similar to, if not equivalent to, the Tao, or Way.
* The workings of the human world are believed to affect Heaven.
1. Self

2. Family

3. Nation

4. Heaven
* One's relationship with family members are defined throughout life in Confucian society.
* In theory this provides a clear sense of place and purpose.
* In any event, one aspect of the Confucian family is prominent: deep respect for elders.
* The older people get, more they are respected
Family (Cont.)
Game Time!!
1. How many category does Confucian Harmony have?

2. What does Korean men wear during ceremony?

3. (T/F) Teacher's Day is come from Confucianism.

4. When they celebrate birthday of the Jade Emperor?

5. Name Three of the Four Books of Confucianism.

6. What is the Supreme Virtue of Confucianism?

7. What is the term for proper behavior in Confucianism?
Sources:
* Eastman, Roger. The Ways of Religion. New York: Madison, 1999.
* Kungfutzu. What is Confucianism. Beliefnet.com, 04 Apr. 2002. web. 23 Feb 2016
* Bruno, John. Confucianism. New York: Smith, 2010.
* Kim, Hanna. Korean Confucianism Ceremony. PBS.org. 2008. web. 15 Feb 2016
* Brodd, Jeffrey. World Religion. Minnesota: Christian Brothers, 2015
* Werts, Richard. Confucianism. New York: Daniel, 1994.
*Weiming, Tu. "Confucianism." Encyclopedia Britannica Online. Encyclopedia Britannica, 20 Jan. 2016. Web. 24 Feb. 2016.

Korean Confucius Ceremony
* For a Korean to address a stranger by their first name would be the depths of rudeness: "Mr" and "Mrs" are used routinely even among co-workers. Bowing to one another is routine.
* And Korean men almost always dress in formal business suits for all occasions outside the home that are not vacation or fun-related.
* The rules of decorum demand formality, if for no other reason than to show respect for other people and thus makes for better social relations.
The Analects
The collected sayings of Confucius
Usually referred to as "Master"
"The Master is cordial yet stern, awe-inspiring yet not fierce, and respectful yet at ease" (7.38)
Confucius' Views
Believed in the restoration of society
Love one another
Inspire others through good examples
Worship your ancestors
Mencius
Innovator/second founder of Confucianism
Humans are naturally good yet commit evil acts
His teachings are documented in the Book of Mencius
Confucianism's Central Project
Learning to be human
Lifelong journey
Maturity
Virtues
Tao
The Way
Moral order
chun-tzu: perfect moral character
Being a gentleman
Game Time !!
8. What three men fundamentally influenced the fate of Confucianism?
9. What religion believes in strict punishment of those who break the law?

10. What title is used in the Analects to describe Confucius

11. Name the state that Confucius was born in.

12. What is the title that the chinese give to Confucius?

13. What religions increasing in popularity created the Neo-Confucianism movement?

14. What was the basis that Confucius wanted to base Confucianism on?
Jen
goodness/love
shu-golden rule
li-proper behavior in social circumstances
sacred ritual
A Bow to Elders
Kung Fu- Tzu, also known as Confucius in most western countries.
He is known as China's First Teacher.
Started a following that ensued in the creation of Confucianism






Historical context

He was born in 551 BC in eastern China.
Even though his family had nobility status, they were still poor.
His father passed when he was young, leaving his education to his mother.
This influenced his views, claiming chinese mothers as the main caretaker for children as their main duty.
Early life
Confucius was a well versed student and desired knowledge.
He successfully taught others and as a result gained a strong following.
He focused on teaching literary and historical lessons.
He was dedicated to using lessons from history and putting them to use in the present.
Final years
When he was about fifty, Confucius became a government officialunder the duke of Lu
He became frustrated that his ideas could not be implemented in Lu, so he traveled in search of ways to apply his beliefs.
After returning without success, he continued to study until his death in 479 BC.
Powerful Legacy
Despite his uneventful life, his influence on the world was profound.
His character lived on within the works collected by his followers.
They took all of his lessons and ideals and created the Analects.

Confucius on China
Confucius believed that China was a nation plagued with war and evil.
Other groups such as the Legalists, Mohists and the Taoist presented their ideas to reform china both spiritually and politically.
Ideas included strict laws, universal love and individualistic pursuits of harmony with nature.
Plans for Reform
Confucius believed in a world centered around human relationships.
He supported justice instead of just love, and preferred to inspire those who fail rather than punish them.
His beliefs were based on prior rulers who followed his teachings.
Ancestors
He adopted the notion of prayer and deep respect for ancestors.
He supported reverence of elders.
He hoped to create a moral nation based on tradition.
The Second Founder
Mencius,(390 to 305 BC) was an innovative interpreter of Confucianism.
He believed that humans were by nature good and did evil things agaisnt their nature.
this became a hallmark of Confucianism.
His Effect
Mencius ideas defined Confucianism as a philosophy that did not affect society for hundreds of years.
The first state established school of Confucian scholars in 136 BC.
Eventually philosophers began to influence schooling throughout china until it became a standard of teaching in all schools.
Neo Confucianism
Neo-Confucianism was a major response to the rise in popularity of Taoism and Buddhism in China
The largest figure in this new movement was a philosopher Chu Hsi.
Chu Hsi interpreted Confucianism as a whole and centralized it around a central format.
He determined the Four Books, a series of books considered the fundamental to understanding Confucianism.
These include the Analects, the Book of Mencius, the Great Leaning and the Doctrine of the Mean.
Close eyes and bow head.
Think on your elders.
Ponder your ancestors.
Consider their wisdom.


The Analects
A collection of writings and conversations related to Confucius.
Represents Confucius enthusiastic character towards his studies and his students.
includes a variety of quotes and wise sayings related to how Confucius views the ideal social life.

Mencius
A book that similar to the Analects portrays the views of Mencius.
He portrays the views of the natural good in humanity.
He also holds a place of great status within the context of the book.
Full transcript