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Praetorius: Mass for Christmas Morning, 1620

Lecture/demonstration on Michael Praetorius' "Mass for Christmas Morning"
by

Dave Kriewall

on 9 August 2011

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Transcript of Praetorius: Mass for Christmas Morning, 1620

The Heritage of Lutheran Worship:
Mass for Christmas Morning, 1620
Composer
Instruments
Location
Background
Order of Service
Experience worship as it might have been heard at a Lutheran service on Christmas morning, celebrated at one of the major churches in central Germany around 1620. Reconstruction is based on the Wolfenbuettel Order of Service, a rite owing much to Luther’s Wittenberg liturgies.

Buy the recording! Praetorius "Mass for Christmas Morning," Gabrieli Consort & Players, Paul McCreesh. Without the benefit of listening, this presentation won't mean much.

There won't be time to listen to the entire recording in a 75-minute presentation time slot. We'll hear highlights and discuss various aspects of the music.
The recording was made on original instruments, at Roskilde Cathedral, Denmark, with 20 vocalists, about 30 musicians, boys' choir and congregation.
Michael Praetorius (1571 – 1621) was the most influential, multifaceted and prolific German composer of his generation. Over some 15 years in the early 17th century he produced an enormous amount of sacred music which soon became the basic repertoire for Lutheran churches in northern Germany. Almost as astonishing as the quantity of his output is its variety of forms, which range in truly encyclopedic fashion from the simplest of congregation hymns to massive polychoral motets.
Born into a Lutheran family, Praetorius studied at Frankfurt an der Oder and setttled in Wolfenbuettel around 1592. By 1595 he had entered the service of Duke Heinrich Julius of Brunswick-Wolfenbuettel as organist. In 1604 he was appointed court Kapellmeister, a position he held until shortly before his death. He spent two years in Dresden between 1613 and 1615, where he met Heinrich Schuetz and was introduced to many of the latest Italian musical developments which were to influence his later works. Renowned as an organist, Praetorius also designed organs and wrote the most important musical treatise of the early Baroque, his monumental Syntagma musicum.
1. Processional: “Christum wir sollen loben schon” 3’14
2. Introit: “Puer natus in Bethlehem” 7’29
3. Kyrie 4’31
4. Gloria 7’36
5. Collect 1’08
6. Epistle 2’01
7. Organ prelude 1’09
8. Gradual hymn: “Von Himmel hoch da komm ich her” 4’03
9. Gospel 3’51
10. Creed 5’12
11. Organ prelude: “Resonet in laudibus” 1’09
12. Pulpit hymn: “Quem pastores laudavere” 4’36
13. Offertory 3’05
14. The Lord’s Prayer & Words of Institution 2’35
15. Sanctus motet: “Jesaja dem Propheten das geschah” 6’25
16. Organ prelude: “Wie schoen leuchtet der Morgenstern” 1’35
17. Communion motet: “Wie schoen leuchtet der Morgenstern” 3’26
18. Communion motet: “Uns ist ein Kindlein heut geborn” 2’11
19. Post-Communion: “Der Herr sei mit euch” 1’19
20. Benediction 1’02
21. Final Hymn: “Puer nobis nascitur” 2’56
22. Organ Voluntary: “Nun lob mein Seel” 3’04
23. Recessional: “In dulci jubilo” 5’23
1. Processional
“Christum wir sollen loben schon”
Melody: Martin Luther, 1524
Harmonization: Lucas Osiander (1534-1604), 1586

Christian Worship: 39
Christum wir sollen loben schon,
der reinen Magd Marien Sohn,
so weit die liebe Sonne leucht,
und an aller Welt Ende reicht.

We now must praise Christ,
Son of the pure Virgin Mary,
as far as the fair sun shines
and reaches to the world’s end.
Der selig Schöpfer aller Ding,
zog an eins Knechtes Leib gering,
daß er das Fleisch durch Fleisch erwerb,
und sein Geschöpf nicht als verderb.

The blessed Creator of all things
assumed the lowly body of a boy
so that he might gain flesh through flesh
and his creation not be destroyed.
Die göttlich Gnad vom Himmel groß,
sich in die keusche Mutter goß,
ein Mägdlein trug ein heimlich Pfand,
das der Natur war unbekand.

The divine grace of great heaven
was enshrined in the chaste mother:
a virgin bore a secret pledge
unknown to Nature.
Er lag in Heu mit Armut groß,
die Krippen hart ihn nicht verdroß,
es ward ein kleine Milch sein Speiß,
der nie kein Vöglein hungern ließ.

In hay he lay in great poverty,
the harsh cradle did not irk him;
a little milk was all his nourishment,
he who never let a little bird go hungry.
Lob, Ehr und Dank sei dir gesagt,
Christ geborn von der reinen Magd,
mit Vater und dem heilgen Geist,
von nun an bis in Ewigkeit.

Praise, glory and thanks be given to thee,
Christ, born of a spotless maid,
and to the Father and the Holy Ghost
now and for evermore.
Why does this sound foreign to
our modern musical ears?
2. Introit
“Puer natus in Bethlehem”
Source: Musae Sioniae V (1607)

Christian Worship: absent

Instrument: theorbo
Theory: perfect fifths
Language: Latin, German
A theorbo, also sometimes called a chitarrone, is a lute with a long neck extension. A theorbo has two pegboxes, one at the top of the fingerboard and the other at the end of the extension.
Puer natus in Bethlehem
Unde gaudet Hierusalem.
Alleluia.

A boy is born in Bethlehem,
whence Jerusalem rejoices,
Alleluia.
Singet, jubilieret, triumphiret
Unserm Herren dem König der Ehren.

Sing, rejoice, triumph,
all honor to our Lord, the King.
Reges de Saba veniunt,
Aurum, thus, myrrham offerunt.
Alleluia.

The kings came there from Sheba,
bringing gold, incense and myrrh,
Alleluia.
Hic jacet in praesipio
Qui regnat sine termino.
Alleluia.

Here lies in the little crib
he whose reign is without end.
Alleluia.
Mein Herzeskindlein,
mein liebstes Freundlein,
O Jesu.

Child of my heart,
my dearest little friend,
O Jesu.
Ein Kind geborn zu Bethlehem,
des freuet sich Jerusalem.
Alleluia.

A child is born in Bethlehem,
whence Jerusalem rejoices.
Alleluia.
Die König aus Saba kamen dar,
Gold, Weihrauch, Myrrhen brachten sie dar, Alleluia.

The kings came there from Sheba,
bringing gold, incense and myrrh,
Alleluia.
Hie leit es in dem Krippelein,
ohn‘ Ende ist die Herrschaft sein.
Alleluja.

Here lies in the little crib
he whose reign is without end.
Alleluia.
In hoc natali gaudio
Benedicamus Domino.
Alleluia.

For this time of such grace
God be praised in all eternity.
Alleluia.
Laudetur sancta Trinitas,
Deo dicamus gratias.
Alleluia.

Praise be to the holy Trinity,
now and forevermore.
Alleluia.
Für solche gnadenreiche Zeit,
sei Gott gelobt in Ewigkeit.
Alleluja.

For this time of such grace
God be praised in all eternity.
Alleluia.
Lob sei der heilgen Dreifaltigkeit,
Nun und in alle Ewigkeit.
Alleluja.

Praise be to the holy Trinity,
now and for evermore.
Alleluia.
3. Kyrie (Missa gantz Teudsch)
Source: Polyhymnia caduceatrix et panegyrica
(Polychoral Hymns of Peace and Festivals, 1619)

Christian Worship: p.15

Instrument: bass violin
Vocal techniques; ornamentation.
Bass violins were the direct ancestor of the modern cello.
A woodcut of an early bass violin ("Bas-Geig de bracio") from Michael Praetorius' Syntagma musicum, 1619. This instrument is somewhat unusual in that it had five strings.
Kyrie eleison.
Herr erbarme dich.

Lord, have mercy.
Lord, have mercy.
Christe eleison.
Christe erbarme dich.

Christ, have mercy.
Christ, have mercy.
Kyrie eleison.
Herr erbarme dich über uns.

Lord, have mercy.
Lord, have mercy on us.
4. Gloria (Missa gantz Teudsch)
Source: Polyhymnia caduceatrix
et panegyrica
(Polychoral Hymns of Peace and
Festivals, 1619)

Christian Worship: pp. 16-17

Instrument: Great Bass Racket
Great Bass Racket
forerunner of modern bassoon. (German “rankett”: to wind around.) 12” high.
Praetorius complains about its sound being comparable to a “comb kazoo,” but says sound is pleasing when combined with viols.
Glory sei Gott in der Höhe und auf Erden Fried den Menschen ein Wohlgefallen.

Glory to God in the highest, and on earth peace to men of good will.
Wir loben dich, wir beten dich an, wir preisen dich, wir sagen dir Dank um deiner großen Ehre willen.

We praise Thee, we bless Thee, we adore Thee, we glorify Thee, we give thanks to Thee for Thy great glory.
Herr Gott, himmlischer König, Gott, allmächtiger Vater.

O Lord God, heavenly King, God the Father almighty.
Herr, eingeborner Sohn, Jesu Christe, du Allerhöchster, Herr Gott, Lamm Gottes, ein Sohn des Vaters, der du hinnimmst die Sünde der Welt, erbarme dich unser.

O Lord, the only-begotten Son, Jesus Christ, the most high, Lord God, Lamb of God, Son of the Father, who takest away the sins of the world, have mercy upon us.
Der du hinnimmst die Sünde der Welt, nimm an unser Gebet. Der du sitzest zu der Rechten des Vaters, erbarme dich unser.

Thou who takest away the sins of the world, receive our prayer. Thou who sittest at the right hand of the Father, have mercy upon us.
Denn du bist allein heilig, du bist allein der Herr, du bist allein der Höchste, Jesu Christe, samt dem heiligen Geist in der Herrlichkeit Gott des Vaters. Amen.

For Thou only art holy, Thou only, Jesus Christ, are most high, with the Holy Ghost in the glory of God the Father. Amen.
5. Collect (Prayer of the Day)
Source:
Musae Sioniae VIII (1610)

Christian Worship: p. 17
V: Der Herr sei mit euch.
R: Und mit deinem Geiste.

V: The Lord be with you.
R: And with thy spirit.
V: Laßt uns beten. Hilf, lieber Herr Gott, daß wir der neuen lieblichen Geburt teilhaftig werden und bleiben und von uns’rer alten sündlichen Geburt erledigt werden durch denselbigen deinen Sohn Jesum Christum, unsern Herren.
R: Amen.
V: Let us pray. Help us, dear Lord God, to be blessed by the lovely new birth and so remain, and to be removed from our old sinful birth, through thy son Jesus Christ, our Lord.
R: Amen.
6. Epistle: Isaiah 9: 2, 6-9
(skip)

Christian Worship: p. 17
7. Organ prelude
“Von Himmel Hoch da komm ich her”
(From Heaven Above to Earth I come)

Christian Worship: 38

Prelude: improvisatory toccata style
8. Gradual:
Hymn “Von Himmel Hoch”

Christian Worship: 38

Instrument: Shawm / Dulcian
alternatum style

Modal vs. modern harmonization
The Shawm
(from Latin calamus, “reed”; Old French: chalemie), double-reed wind instrument, a precursor of the oboe. Like the oboe, it is conically bored; but its bore, bell, and finger holes are wider, and it has a wooden disk (called a pirouette) that supports the lips and holds them away from the reed. The tone, intended for open air, is powerful.
Von Himmel hoch da komm ich her,
ich bring euch gute neue Mär,
der guten Mär bring ich so viel,
davon ich singn und sagen will.

From heaven on high I come hither,
bringing you good news;
so much good news do I bring
that of it I will sing and speak.
Euch ist ein Kindlein heut geborn,
von einer Jungfrau auserkorn,
ein Kindelein so zart und fein,
das soll eur Freud und Wonne sein.

Today a little child is born to you
by a chosen virgin,
a child so tender and fine
who shall be your joy and delight.
Es ist der Herr Christ, unser Gott,
der will euch führn aus aller Not,
er will eur Heiland selber sein,
von allen Sünden machen rein.

He is the Lord Christ, our God,
who will lead you out of all distress;
he will be your Savior himself,
cleansing you from all sin.
Er bringt euch alle Seligkeit,
die Gott, der Vater hat bereit’t,
daß ihr mit uns im Himmelreich,
sollt leben nun und ewiglich.

He brings to you all the bliss
that God the Father has prepared,
so that you shall live with us in the kingdom of heaven
now and for evermore.
So merket nun das Zeichen recht,
die Krippen, Windelein so schlecht,
da findet ihr das Kind gelegt,
das alle Welt erhält und trägt.

So mark now the sign aright, the crib,
the wretched swaddling clothes;
there you will find the child lying
who will preserve and sustain the whole world.
Des laßt uns alle fröhlich sein,
und mit den Hirten gehn hinein,
zu sehn, was Gott uns hat beschert,
mit seinem liebsten Sohn verehrt.

Then let us all be joyful
and go in with the shepherds
to see what God has granted us,
presented us with his dearest son.
Ach, mein herzliebes Jesulein,
mach dir ein rein sanft Bettelein,
zu ruh’n in meines Herzensschrein,
daß ich nimmer vergesse dein.

Ah, my dear little Jesus,
make yourself a clean soft cot
to rest in my heart’s shrine,
that I may never forget you.
Davon ich all’ Zeit fröhlich sei,
zu springen, singen immer frei
das rechte Susaninne schon,
mit Herzen Lust den süßen Ton.

Thereof let me be joyful at all times,
ever free to leap and sing
the sweet notes of apt lullabies
with heartfelt joy.
Lob, Ehr sei Gott im höchsten Thron,
der uns schenkt seinen eignen Sohn,
des freuet sich der Engel Schar,
und singen uns solch neues Jahr.

Praise and glory be to God on his highest throne,
who bestows on us his only son,
at which the host of angels rejoices
and sings to us such a new year.
9. Gospel: Luke 2: 1-14
(skip)

Christian Worship: p. 18
10. Creed
Source: Melody, Martin Luther, 1524
Harmonization: Samuel Scheidt (1587-1654), Görlitzer Tabulaturbuch 1650

Christian Worship: 271

Melody: modal - but 2nd verse tonal
Second verse (for choir):
modern tonality;
descending chromaticism;
reduced volume;
slower tempo:
why?
Wir glauben all an einen Gott,
Schöpfer Himmels und der Erden,
der sich zum Vater geben hat,
daß wir seine Kinder werden.
Er will uns allzeit ernähren,
Leib und Seel auch wohl bewahren,
allem Unfall will er wehren,
kein Leid soll uns widerfahren.
Er sorget für uns, hüt und wacht,
es steht alles in seiner Macht.
We all believe in one God,
Creator of heaven and earth,
who has acted as a father,
that we might be his children.
He will always nourish us,
also well guard body and soul,
he will shield us from all mishap,
no harm shall befall us.
He cares for us, guards and protects us;
everything is within his power.
Wir glauben auch an Jesum Christ,
seinen Sohn und unsern Herren,
der ewig bei dem Vater ist,
gleicher Gott von Macht und Ehren.
Von Maria, der Jungfrauen,
ist ein wahrer Mensch geboren
durch den Heilgen Geist im Glauben,
für uns, die wir waren verloren,
am Kreuz gestorben und vom Tod
wieder auferstanden durch Gott.
We also believe in Jesus Christ,
his Son and our Lord,
who is forever beside the Father,
likewise God of might and glory.
From Mary, the virgin,
a true man is born
through the Holy Ghost in faith;
for us, who were lost,
he died on the Cross, and from death
rose again through God.
Wir glauben an den Heiligen Geist,
Gott mit Vater und dem Sohne,
der aller Blöden Tröster heißt,
und mit Gaben zieret schöne.
Die ganz Christenheit auf Erden
hält in einem Sinn gar eben,
hie all Sünd vergeben werden,
das Fleisch soll auch wiederleben.
Nach diesem Elend ist bereit’
uns ein Leben in Ewigkeit. Amen.
We believe in the Holy Ghost,
God with the Father and the Son,
who is called comforter of all the foolish
and adorns them with beauteous gifts.
He holds all Christendom on earth
quite evenly in one spirit;
here all sins are forgiven,
flesh shall also live again.
After this misery, a life is prepared
for us in eternity. Amen.
11. Organ prelude
“Resonet in laudibus”
Source: anonymous, Lüneburg Stadtarchiv
12. Pulpit hymn
“Quem pastores laudavere”
(Come, Your Hearts and Voices Raising)
Source: Puericinium (1621) –
(training manual for young boy singers)
Christian Worship: 42
Quem pastores laudavere,
Quibus Angeli dixere:
Absit vobis iam timere,
Natus est Rex gloriae.

He whom the shepherds greatly praised
and the angels still more cried:
"Henceforth fear no more!
To you is born the king of glory."
Den die Hirten lobeten sehre,
und die Engel noch viel mehre,
fürcht euch fürbaß nimmermehre,
euch ist gborn ein König der Ehrn.

He whom the shepherds greatly praised
and the angels still more cried:
“Henceforth fear no more!
To you is born the king of glory."
Heut sind die lieben Engelein
Im hellen Schein
Erschienen bei der Nachte.
Den Hirten so ihr Schäfelein
Beim Mondenschein in weitem Feld bewachten.

Today the dear angels
have appeared in a bright light in the night.
Shepherds, watching your flocks
by moonlight in the broad field,
Große Freud und gute Mär
wolln wir euch offenbaren,
die euch und aller Welt soll widerfahren.
Gottes Sohn ist Mensch-geborn,
hat versöhnt des Vaters Zorn.

We wish to reveal to you
great joy and good tidings
which shall befall you and all the world.
The Son of God is born of man
and has appeased his Father’s wrath.”
Ad quem Magi ambulant,
Aurum, thus, myrrham portabant,
Immolabant haec sincere
Leoni victoriae.

To whom the wise men came,
bringing with them gold, incense and myrrh;
they offered these things sincerely
to the lion of victory.
Zu dem die Weisen kamen geritten
Gold, Weihrauch, Myrrhen brachten sie mitte,
sie fielen nieder auf ihr Knie.
Gelobt seist du Herr allhie.

To whom the wise men came riding,
bringing with them gold, incense and myrrh,
they fell down on their knees.
Praise be to thee here, Lord!
Ein Sohn die Göttlich Majestät
euch geben hat
und einen Mensch la’n werden,
ein Jungfrau ihn geboren hat
in Davids Stadt,
da ihr ihn finden werdet.
Divine majesty has given you
a Son who will
become a man.
A virgin bore him
in the city of David,
where you will find him.
Liegend in ein Krippelein,
nackend, bloß und elende,
daß er euer Elend von sich soll wenden.
Gottes Sohn ist Mensch-geborn,
hat versöhnt des Vaters Zorn.

Lying in a manger
naked, bare and wretched, so that
he may take your misery upon himself.
The Son of God is born of man
and has appeased his Father’s wrath.
Christo Regi Deo nato,
Per Mariam nobis dato,
Merito resonat vere
Laus, honor et gloria.

To Christ, born a king and god,
granted us through Mary,
let praise, honor and glory
truly and deservedly resound.
Lobet alle Menschen gleiche
Gottes Sohn vom Himmelreiche,
uns zu Trost ist er geboren.
Lob und Preis sei Gott dem Herrn.

Let all men alike praise
God’s Son from the realm of heaven,
who is born to bring us solace.
Praise and glory be to God the Lord.
Die Hirten sprachen nun wohlan,
so laßt uns gahn
und diese Ding erfahren,
die uns der Herr hat kundgetan,
er wird indes unser Vieh wohl bewahren.
The shepherds now spoke up:
“Then let us go
and see this thing
of which the Lord has told us.
He will meanwhile
guard our cattle well.”
Da findn sie das Kindelein
in Tüchelein gehüllet,
daß alle Welt mit seiner Gnad erfüllet.
Gottes Sohn ist Mensch-geborn,
hat versöhnt des Vaters Zorn.

There they will find the babe
wrapped in a small cloth, that all the world might be filled with his grace.
The Son of God is born of man
and has appeased his Father’s wrath.
13. Sonata (Offertory)
14. The Lord’s Prayer;
Words of Institution
(skip)

Christian Worship: pp. 20, 23
15. Sanctus motet:
“Jesaja dem Propheten das geschah”
(Isaiah, Mighty Seer in Days of Old)
Source: Polyhymnia caduceatrix (1619);
text, Martin Luther

Christian Worship: 267
Text painting:

“hohen Thron” (lofty throne) – high note
“sie flogen frei” (they flew freely; aloft they soared) – soaring high notes
“gegenander ruften sie” (one to the other called) – echo effects
“mit großem Geschrei” (with a great cry)
Text painting (cont.):
“Heilig ist Gott der Herre Zebaoth” (Holy is God, the Lord of Hosts) – starts simply, increasing complexity of the angels’ song as more and more join; can be in ¾ (indicating Trinity)
“Sein Ehr die ganze Welt erfüllet hat.” (His Glory has filled the whole world.) – always in 4/4 (indicating the earth); massive sound to fill the space.
Text painting (cont.):

“Von dem Geschrei zittert Schwell und Balken gar” (Threshold and rafters shake with the cry) – massive sound to fill and seemingly shake the church. Similar to treatment of “mit großem Geschrei”
Text painting (cont.):

8) The tongue-twister:
“Das Haus auch ganz voll Rauchs und Nebels war.” (The house also was full of smoke and fog [haze].)
First, a rapid-fire overlapping repetition of the phrase; effect: musical smoke and fog!
Then, an awesome picture of the grandeur of the vision and the glory of God in his temple
Jesaja, dem Propheten das geschah,
daß er im Geist den Herren sitzen sah
auf einem hohen Thron im hellen Glanz,
seines Kleides Saum den Chor füllet ganz.

It befell to Isaiah the prophet
that in spirit he saw the Lord sitting
on a lofty throne in brilliant splendor,
the hem of his robe completely filling the choir.
Es stunden zwen Seraph bei ihm daran,
sechs Flügel sah er einen jeden han.
Mit zwen verborgen sie ihr Antlitz klar,
mit zwen bedeckten sie die Füße gar,
und mit den andern zwen sie flogen frei,

Two seraphs stood beside him;
He saw that each had six wings.
With two they hid their bright faces,
with two they quite covered their feet,
and with the other two they flew free,
Gegnander ruften sie mit großem Geschrei:

Calling to each other with a great cry:
Heilig ist Gott der Herre Zebaoth,
sein Ehr die ganze Welt erfüllet hat.

“Holy is God the Lord of Sabaoth;
His glory has filled the whole world.”
Von dem Geschrei zittert Schwell und Balken gar,

Threshold and rafters shake with the cry,
Das Haus auch ganz voll Rauchs und Nebels war.

The house was also full of smoke and haze.
16. Organ prelude: „Wie schön
leuchtet der Morgenstern“
Source: Samuel Scheidt

Christian Worship: 79
17. Communion motet: „Wie schön
leuchtet der Morgenstern“
Source: Polyhymnia caduceatrix (1619)

Christian Worship: 79
Wie schön leuchtet der Morgenstern
voll Gnad und Wahrheit von dem Herrn,
Du süße Wurzel Jesse.

How brightly shines the morning star,
full of grace and truth from the Lord,
the sweet root of Jesse!
Du Sohn Davids aus Jakobs Stamm,
mein König und mein Bräutigam,
hast mir mein Herz besessen;

Son of David from Jacob’s stock,
my king and my bridegroom,
Thou hast taken possession of my heart.
Lieblich, freundlich, schön und herrlich,
groß und ehrlich,
Reich an Gaben,
hoch und sehr prächtig erhaben.

Sweetly, kindly, beautiful and mighty,
great and upright,
rich in gifts,
high and exalted in great splendor.
18. Communion motet: „Uns ist ein
Kindlein heut geborn“
Source: Musae Sioniae VI (1609)
Uns ist ein Kindlein heut geborn,
von einer Jungfrau auserkorn,
ein wahrer Mensch und wahrer Gott,
daß er uns helf aus aller Not,
sein Nam ist Wunderbar und Rat,
durch ihn haben wir funden Gnad.

To us this day a babe is born
of a chosen virgin,
a true man and true God,
to help us out of all distress.
His name is Wonderful and Counselor:
through him we have found grace.
Was hätt uns Gott mehr können tun,
denn daß er uns schenkt seinen Sohn,
der von uns weggenommen hat,
all unser Sünd und Missetat,
erlöst uns von der Sünd und Pein,
darein wir sollten ewig sein.

What more could God have done for us
than send us his Son,
who from us has taken away
all our sins and misdeeds,
rescued us from the sin and pain
in which we should have remained forever.
Freu dich du werte Christenheit,
und dank es Gott in Ewigkeit,
hass aber alle Sünd und List,
davon du teur erlöset bist,
sei fortan gottfürchtig und rein,
zu Ehrn dem neugbornen Kindelein.

Rejoice, O worthy Christendom,
and thank God into all eternity;
but hate all sin and guile,
from which you have been dearly saved.
Henceforth be God-fearing and pure
to honor the newborn babe.
19. Post-Communion blessing and prayer: „Der Herr sei mit euch“

Christian Worship: p. 24
V: Laßt uns beten. Wir danken dir, allmächtiger Gott, daß du uns durch diese heilsame Gabe hast erquicket, und bitte deine Barmherzigkeit, daß du uns solches gedeihen lassest zu starken Glauben gegen dich und zu brünstiger Liebe unter uns allem um Jesu Christi, unsers Herren willen.
R: Amen.
V: Let us pray. We thank thee, Almighty God, for having invigorated us with this healing gift, and plead for thy compassion to leave us such progress towards firm faith in thee and heartfelt love among us all, for the sake of Jesus Christ, our Lord.
R: Amen.
20. Benediction: „Der Herr segne dich“

Christian Worship: p. 25
V: Der Herr segne dich und behüte dich. Der Herr erleuchte sein Angesicht über dir und sei dir gnädig. Der Herr hebe sein Angesicht auf dich und gebe dir Frieden.
R: Amen.
V: The Lord bless you and keep you. May the Lord shine his countenance upon you and be merciful unto you. May the Lord turn his face to you and give you peace.
R: Amen.
21. Final Hymn: “Puer nobis nascitur”
Source: Musae Sioniae VI (1609)

Christian Worship: 5, 16, 53
is tubular, typically about 2 feet long, made of ivory or wood, with woodwind-style fingerholes. At the top of the cornett there is a small mouthpiece of the kind used in brass instruments; that is, the lips vibrate to produce sound.

The cornett is a hybrid, with a body constructed like a woodwind but its mouthpiece (and thus mechanism of tone production) being that of a brass instrument.
The Cornett
Puer nobis nascitur,
Rector angelorum,
In hoc mundo pascitur
Dominus Dominorum.

To us is born a child,
guardian of the angels,
in this world lives
the Lord of Lords.
Uns ist gborn ein Kindelein,
von einer Jungfrau reine,
Marie ist die Mutter sein,
sein Vater Gott alleine.

To us is born a child
of a spotless virgin;
Mary is his mother,
his father God alone.
In praesepe ponitur,
Faeno juvencorum,
Cognoverunt Dominum,
Christum regem coelorum.

In a manger was he laid,
in the hay of oxen;
they recognized the Lord,
Christ the king of heaven.
In ein Kripp ward er gelegt,
der all Ding regieret,
das Ochslein und Eselein
erkannten Gott den Herren.

In a manger was he laid,
he who reigns over all things;
the ox and ass
recognized God the Lord.
Hinc Herodes timuit
Magno cum tremore,
Infantes et pueros
Occidit cum dolore.

This made King Herod afraid,
with great trembling
he killed in his wrath
many babes and children.
Kön’g Herodes das verdroß,
viel Kindlein ließ er töten,
er wür’t und tobt ohn all Maß,
des ist er nun in Nöten.

This galled King Herod,
who had many children killed;
he raged and raved beyond all measure,
for he was now in a plight.
Qui natus ex Maria
Die hodierna
Perducat nos cum gratia
Ad gaudia superna.

He who was born of Mary
on this very day
would lead us by his grace
to heavenly joy.
Der von Maria ward geborn,
an diesem heutgen Tage,
der wolle sein liebs Himmelreich
uns nimmermehr versagen.

He who was born of Mary
on this very day
would never deny us
his dear heavenly realm.
Nos de tali gaudio
Cantemus in choro,
In chordis et organo
Benedicamus Domino.

Of such joy
let us sing together,
with strings and organ
let us praise the Lord.
Drum seid fröhlich allermeist,
lobsingt und jubilieret,
Gott Vater, Sohn und heilgen Geist,
dem sei Preis, Dank und Ehre.

Therefore be exceeding joyful,
sing praises and exult
to God the Father, Son and Holy Ghost,
to whom be praise, thanks and glory.
22. Organ Voluntary:
“Nun lob mein Seel”
Christian Worship: 257
23. Recessional: “In Dulci Jubilo”
Source: Polyhymnia caduceatrix (1619)

Christian Worship: 34
The Sackbut
“Sackbut” refers to a trombone from the Renaissance and Baroque eras.
Here Praetorius illustrates the different sizes in Syntagma Musicum.
In dulci jubilo
Nun singet und seid froh;
unsers Herzens Wonne
Leit in praesepio
Und leuchtet als die Sonne
Matris in gremio,
Alpha es et O.
In sweet jubilation
Now sing and rejoice:
our heart’s delight
lies in a manger
and shines like the sun
in his mother’s bosom.
You are the first and last.
O Jesu parvule,
nach dir ist mir so weh;
tröst mir mein Gemüte,
O puer optime;
durch alle deine Güte,
O princeps gloriae,
Trahe me post te.
O little Jesus,
I so long for you;
comfort my soul,
O best boy;
by all your good,
O prince of glory,
draw me after you.
O Patris caritas,
O nati lenitas,
wir wären all verloren
Per nostra crimina,
so hat er uns erworben
Coelorum gaudia.
Eya wären wir da!
O love of the Father,
O mildness of the Son!
We were all lost
through our sins
until you gained for us
the joys of heaven:
O that we were there!
Ubi sunt gaudia,
nirgends mehr denn da.
Da die Engel singen
Nova cantica
und die Schellen klingen
In regis curia.
Eya wärn wir da!
Where are joys?
Nowhere more than there.
There the angels sing
new songs,
and the bells ring
in the court of the king:
O that we were there!
Theory
Praetorius stands at a crossroads in musical styles. The Renaissance period (1450-1600) has ended; Baroque (1600-1750) is beginning. (Bach is born in 1685.)
The music of the middle ages first focused on "perfect" consonances: the octave, fifth and fourth.
Overtone series:
fundamental (1st partial) (x)
octave (2nd partial) (2x)
fifth (3rd partial) (3x)
octave (4th partial) (4x)
third (5th partial) (5x)
In the Renaissance, the major third grew in importance. Many compositions now ended with a chord including a major third.
What's going on in 1620?
transition from modal to tonal
standardizing on 12 keys per keyboard octave
explicitly writing sharp, natural and flat signs
writing bar lines in music
consolidation of tuning systems from Pythagorean to well-tempered and equal temperament
AMPHION, the founder of the city of Thebes
had drawn rocks with the sound of the tortoise-shell [lute?]
and the untamed lions Thracian ORPHEUS [had drawn] with a skillful lyre.
Let us not wonder at this deed. On the contrary, we should be amazed at that very man, Praetorius, who while our souls remain within our bodies,
conveys them to the stars through the sweetness of song.

For who among mortals is so stupid, blockheaded, foolish, senseless, and dull,
that he would not esteem himself to be among the blessed dwellers in heaven,
and would not think himself added to the choir of angels,
as soon as Polyhymnia sound in the sanctuary,
and soothes the inmost soul?
Epode in Honor of the Distinguished Michael Praetorius [George Remus, 30 April 1619]
A performance must not be rushed, for confusion will be created in the entire ensemble -- even the most enjoyable ones. However, when it is performed to a slower beat, the harmony is made more gracious and is better perceived. The equality of the measurement [of the notes] must be observed, lest the harmony be marred or disturbed.
For to sing without law or measure is to offend God himself, who arranged all things according to their number, weight, and measure, as Plato says.
Vinettas
or vinata is a ditty by a wine-grower or vintner who works in the vineyard, for vinetto means vintner or wine-grower. (Vinette, however, is an undistinguished table wine.)
Vinatas are drinking songs or, to use the proper title, boozing songs, which are neither unusual here in Germany nor uncommon.
It is my belief that there is no vanity or triviality found in the world that has not been sung or set to music.
This prezi contains some sections not on the normal viewing path. These sections contain additional detail or presenter's comments, for the benefit of those who did not attend the presentation in person.
Praetorius died at the height of his career in Wolfenbuettel on 15 February 1621, his fiftieth birthday.
1. Although there are no sharps or flats in the key signature, it is not in the key of C -- or any other key.
2. There's no discernible meter -- no regularity of beats or number of syllables. (12/12/15/14)
3. The harmony does not produce a major or minor tonality; the piece is modal. The beginning note (D) is different from the ending note (E), which confuses our modern ears.
[Demonstrate: last phrase, harmonized with
G d F F F a D!(F#) G C d G d E A]
C
F
Bb
Eb
Ab
Db
G
D
A
E
B
F#
Circle of Fifths
Fifths are important in music because:
after the octave, the (perfect) fifth is the next naturally occurring interval in the overtone series
Partials 1, 2, 4, 8, 16 etc. are octaves over the same fundamental note
Partial 3 is a perfect fifth; three times the frequency of the fundamental
We call it a "fifth" because there are five natural notes on the keyboard between C and G (C, D, E, F, G)
Playing a fifth with the adjacent octave partial (below or above) reinforces the fundamental (3x - 2x = x; 4x - 3x = x)
They sound good to our ears! (And to the early church, that meant they were pleasing to God.)
Descending 4th, 3rd, 2nd partials (C', G, C; octave, fifth, unison) became a cadential pattern reinforcing a tonal center
The 5th partial makes the chord major!
Early tuning systems used fifth (3:2) of fifth (3:2) = (9:4) and so on to continue until the 12th note almost coincides with 128x the fundamental (3^12 / 2^12 = 531441/4096 = 129.7463)
This is why we have 12 notes in our keyboard octave today
And the slight difference between 129.746 and 128 is why there has been so much historical discussion about how to tuning keyboards
(Demonstrate overtone series on horn)
demonstrate 2nd verse harmonization
vocal ornamentation
violin descant; slow voices layered over fast (augmentation)
Michael Praetorius, Syntagma Musicum
Major third ratio is 5:4. Taking a perfect fifth (3:2)
of a perfect fifth (3:2) of (3:2) of (3:2) = 9x9 : 4x4 or 81:16. That's extremely close to 5:4 = 80:64 (16). But the difference is still perceptible to the human ear.

Example: x = C. Following circle of fifths clockwise, multiply by 3/2 four times (G, D, A, E).
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