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Years Of Crisis (Age of Anxiety): 1919-1939

AP Euro
by

Kristin Palomares

on 7 February 2017

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Transcript of Years Of Crisis (Age of Anxiety): 1919-1939

Literature In The 1920s
A New Revolution In Science
Composers Try New Styles
William Butler Yeats
T.S. Elliot
Freud
Einstein
Postwar Uncertainty
German physicist
Theory of Relativity: Space and time are not constants
Austrian physician
Treated patients with psychological problems
Human behavior is irrational or beyond reason (unconscious drives)
Ideas weakened faith in reason
Id, Ego, Superego
Society & Technology
Revolution In The Arts
Postwar Europe
Financial Collapse
The Great Depression
The Great Depression
Years of Crisis: 1919-1939
Big Idea
Fascism Rises In Europe
Fascism
1920s
Aggressors Invade Nations
American poet who lived in England
Thought Western society had lost its spiritual values
Described the postwar world as a "wasteland"
Irish poet
In the poem "The Second Coming," he claimed "Things fall apart; the centre cannot hold; Mere anarchy is loosed upon the world"
Writers Reflect Society's Concerns
Kafka
Czech
"The Trial" and "The Castle"
Featured characters caught in threatening situations they can neither understand or escape
James Joyce
Influenced by Freud
Stream-of-consciousness writing
Broke away from traditional sentence structure and vocabulary in an attempt to mirror the human mind
"Ulysses": Focuses on a single day int he lives of three people in Dublin
Existentialism
Search for meaning in an uncertain world
No universal meaning in life
Nietzche
German philosopher
Western ideas (democracy, reason, etc.) stifled people's creativity
Wanted people to return to the ancient heroic values of pride, assertiveness, etc.
"Humankind cannot bear very much reality."
Surrealism
Wanted to depict the inner world of emotion and imagination
Sought to link the world of dreams with real life
"beyond or above reality"
Salvador Dali
Modern Day Example
Igor Stravinsky
Russian
Used irregular rhythms and dissonances (or harsh combos of sound)
"The Rite of Spring"
Jazz
Emerged in New Orleans, Memphis, and Chicago
Loose beat captured the new freedom
Women's Roles Change
Young people were willing to break with the past and experiment with modern values
After WWI, women's suffrage became law in many countries (U.S., Britain, Germany, Sweden, and Austria)
Abondoned restrictive clothing
Wore shorter, looser garments and had their hair "bobbed"
Birth Control
New careers in medicine, education, and journalism
Technological Advances Improve Life
Automobile
Prewar Britain: Autos for only the rich
Postwar Britain: Prices dropped and middle class bought
Airplane
1919: Two British pilots made the first successful flight across the Atlantic, from Newfoundland to Ireland
1927: Charles Lindbergh took a 33 hour solo flight from New York to Paris
Radio and Movies
Marconi: 1st Radio
KDKA in Pittsburgh: 1st commercial radio station
Europe: Movies were art
Hollywood: 90% of all films were made; for entertainment
Charlie Chaplin: king of the silent screen
Taboo Review
Marconi
Charlie Chaplin
Automobile
Charles Lindbergh
Changing Role of Women
Surrealism
Dali
Jazz
Stravinsky
T.S. Elliot
William Butler Yeats
Kafka
James Joyce
Existentialism
Nietzche
Freud
Einstein
human suffering + economic terms = bankruptcy and political decline
Unstable New Democracies
Russia
Provisional Government fell to Communist Dictatorship
Germany
For generations, kings and emperors rulled the area
Other Issues
Political parties created divisions
coalition government: temporary alliance of several parties
Poor leadership and lack of long-term goals
Weimar Republic
1919
Named after city where the national assembly met
Weak: Germany lacked strong democratice tradition, had several major and minor political parties, people blamed for WWI and the Treaty of Versailles
Inflation Causes Crisis
Unlike Great Britain and France, Germany didn't increase wartime taxes
Solution was to print money but after war it lost its value
Mark, Germany's currency, fell when reparation payments kicked in
Costs increased: Bread in 1918 was 1 mark while it rose to 160 marks in 1922 and 200 billion marks in 1923
Attempts at Economic Stability
1923: Germany recovered due to international intervention
Charles Dawes, an American banker, provided a $200 million loan
(Dawes Plan)
Attracted more loans and investments with time
Efforts at a Lasting Peace
The foreign ministers of Germany and France tried to improve relations between their countries
Both promised not to make war against each other and to honor borders
Germany was admitted into the League of Nations
Kellogg-Briand Peace Pact: U.S. Secretary of State got all European nations "to renounce war as an instrument of national policy"
Pact had no way to enforce the goal
A Flawed U.S. Economy
uneven distribution of wealth, overproduction by business and agriculture, and many Americans were buying less
Stock Market Crashes
New York City's Wall Street was the financial capital of the world
Middle-income people started buying stocks on margin (paid a small percentage and borrowed the rest)
September 1929: investors began to think that stock prices were unnaturally high so they started selling their stocks
Thursday, October 24: stock prices started falling
Tuesday, October 29: stock prices plunged to a new low when 16 million stocks were sold
2 min
4 min
American bankers demanded repayment of overseas loans
American market for European goods dropped sharply when the U.S. Congress placed high tariffs on imported goods
Germany and Austria were hit hard
Great Britain
National Government: multiparty coalition that passed high tariffs, increased taxes, lowered interest rates, and regulated currency
France
Self-sufficient agricultural economy
Depression created political stability
The Popular Front: coalition of moderates, Socialists, and Communists who passed a series of reforms to help workers
U.S.
New Deal: large public works projects aimed at providing jobs
Believed government spending would create jobs and start recovery
World Confronts the Crisis
New Deal
Roosevelt
The Popular Front
National Government
Tariffs
Great Depression
Stock Market Crash
Kellog-Briand Peace Pact
Dawes Plan
Mark
Weimer Republic
Coalition Government
Taboo Review
Emphasized loyalty to the state and obedience to its leader
Preached an extreme form of nationalism
One-party Rule
Denied individual rights
Economy controlled by state corporations or state
Supported by middle class, industrialists, and military
censorship
indoctrination
secret police
Culture
Benito Mussolini
Treaty of Versailles: disappointment over failure to win large territorial gains
Rising inflation
High Unemployment
Italians ? Democracy
Newspaper editor and politician
Promised to rebuild economy and armed forces
Founder of the Fascist Party
Black Shirts attacked Communists and Socialists
Played on fear of workers' revolt, middle class support grew
October 1922: 30,000 Fascists marched on Rome
Demanded that King Victor Emmanuel III put Mussolini in charge
Nicknamed "Il Duce" (The Leader)
Abolished democracy, outlawed political parties, used secret police, and censored material
Adolf Hitler
Germany
Failed artist
Volunteered for the Germany Army
Awarded the Iron Cross for bravery twice
NAZISM
National Socialist German Workers' Party
right-wing party
believed Germany had to overturn the Treaty of Versailles and combat communism
Swastika, or hooked cross
Storm Troopers
AKA Brown Shirts
Private Militia
Success as an organizer and speaker allowed him to become der Fuhrer (leader) of the party
Attempted to seize power of Munich after being inspired by Mussolini
Failed, arrested, tried for treason, and sent to prison
Wrote "Mein Kampf" or "My Struggle"
Outlines beliefs and goals for Germany
Aryans were a master race
Germany needed more lebensraum (living space)
1932: Nazis were largest party
Conservatives believed they could control Hitler so they advised President Hidenburg to make him chancellor
Reichstag burns down before elections and Nazis target Communists
SS (Schutztaffel or protection squad) and the Gestapo (secret police) enforced totalitarian policies
Anti-semitism (hatred of Jews) became key component of ideology and led to Kristallnacht (Night of Broken Glass)
Kristallnacht
Antisemitism
Fuhrer
SS
Gestapo
Reichstag
Hindenburg
lebensraum
Mein Kampf
Nazism
Swastika
Storm Troopers
Iron Cross
Hitler
Il Duce
Mussolini
Fascism
King Victor Emmanuel III
Black Shirts
Taboo Review
Taboo Reivew
Japan Seeks An Empire
European Aggressors on the March
Democratic Nations Try
To Preserve Peace
Japan Becomes More Democratic
Signed international treaty agreeing to respect China's borders
Signed Kellog-Briand Pact thus renouncing war
Had a parliamentary system but it was weak
1929
Militarists Take Control of Japan
Civilians blamed government
Militarists turned the emperor into a symbol of state power
Extreme nationalists who wanted to solve the $ problems
Planned for a Pacific Empire
Emperor Hirohito
1931
Japan Invades Manchuria
Area rich in iron & coal
Army seized land despite parliament's objections
1st direct challenge to the League of Nations
1937
Japan Invades China
Sparked over border issues
Jiang Jieshi's million soldier army lost
Rape of Nanking
Mussolini Attacks Ethiopia
One of Africa's 3 independent nations
Mussolini ordered to avenge previous loss during the Age of Imperialism
Emperor Haile Selassie asked the League of Nations for help
LON condemned but did nothing in hopes of keeping peace in Europe
Hitler Defies Versailles Treaty
Germany built up military and the League issued a mild condemnation
Hitler invaded the Rhineland, an industrialized buffer zone between Germany and France that was off-limits under the TOV
The British urged appeasement (giving in to an aggressor to keep peace)
Action increased strength of Hitler's power and prestige while pushing the balance of power in favor of Germany
Convinced Mussolini to enter into an alliance with Hitler and Hirohito (Axis Powers)
Civil War Erupts In Spain
Spain was a monarchy until 1931 when it was declared a republic
Government was run by liberals and Socialists
Fascist army leaders joined General Francisco Franco in a revolt
Hitler and Mussolini supported Franco's Nationalists
Republicans only received help from the Soviet Union
Picasso's Guernica
German allies bombed
Cubism (geometric forms)
A human skull
Bull gores from below
Hidden images fromed by the horse
Dead soldier with severed arm grasping a shattered sword from which a flower grows
Bull's tails forms the image of a flame with smoke rising from it
On open palm of dead soldier is a stigma, a symbol of martyrdom derived from Christ
Spanish word for lightbulb = "bombilla"=
allusion to bomb = destruction caused by technology
Flame lit lamp is a symbol of hope
Daggers that suggest screaming replace the tongues of the bull, grieving women, and hores
Shape and posture of bodies express protest
Use of black, white, and grewy set somber mood
Flaming buildings and crumbling walls express destruction of war
Newspaper print used reflects how Picasso learned of massacre
Kellog-Briand Pact
Emperor Hirohito
Manchuria
Jiang Jieshi
Rape of Nanking
Ethiopia
Haile Selassie
Rhineland
Appeasement
Axis Powers
Nationalists
U.S. Follows an Isolationist Policy
Isolationism
Belief that political ties to other countries should be avoided
Neutrality Acts
1935
Congress passed
Laws banned loans and the sale of arms to nations at war
The German Reich Expands
Anschluss
union between Austria & Germany
Hitler wanted to incorporate into the Third Reich
Treaty of Versailles prohibited
Czechoslovakia
Sudetenland contained 3 million German-speaking people
1937-1938
Munich Conference
Meeting of Italy, Germany, France, & Britain
Czechs not invited
Chamberlain was pro-appeasement
Britain and France allowed Hitler to take the Sudetenland in exchange for the promise that he respect Czech's borders
Non-Aggression Pact
Britain, France, and the Soviet Union joined together to stop Hitler
However, Germany and the Soviet Union agreed to never attack each other
Republicans
Francisco Franco
Picasso
Guernica
Isolationism
Neutrality Acts
Anschluss
Sudetenland
Munich Conference
Chamberlain
Non-agression Pact
Taboo Review
2 min
2 min
Ethiopia
Haile Selassie
Rhineland
Appeasement
Axis Powers
Cubism
Guernica
Francisco Franco
Nationalists
Republicans
Taboo Review
EQ: How do ideas spread?
EQ:What acts of war should be punishable as a crime?
EQ: How do we maintain peace?
Full transcript