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Years Of Crisis (Age of Anxiety): 1919-1939

AP Euro

Kristin Palomares

on 2 April 2014

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Transcript of Years Of Crisis (Age of Anxiety): 1919-1939

Literature In The 1920s A New Revolution In Science Composers Try New Styles William Butler Yeats T.S. Elliot Freud Einstein Postwar Uncertainty German physicist
Theory of Relativity: Space and time are not constants Austrian physician
Treated patients with psychological problems
Human behavior is irrational or beyond reason (unconscious drives)
Ideas weakened faith in reason Id, Ego, Superego Society & Technology Revolution In The Arts Postwar Europe Financial Collapse The Great Depression The Great Depression Years of Crisis: 1919-1939 Big Idea Fascism Rises In Europe Facism 1920s Aggressors Invade Nations American poet who lived in England
Thought Western society had lost its spiritual values
Described the postwar world as a "wasteland" Irish poet
In the poem "The Second Coming," he claimed "Things fall apart; the centre cannot hold; Mere anarchy is loosed upon the world" Writers Reflect Society's Concerns Kafka Czech
"The Trial" and "The Castle"
Featured characters caught in threatening situations they can neither understand or escape James Joyce Influenced by Freud
Stream-of-consciousness writing
Broke away from traditional sentence structure and vocabulary in an attempt to mirror the human mind
"Ulysses": Focuses on a single day int he lives of three people in Dublin Existentialism Search for meaning in an uncertain world No universal meaning in life Nietzche German philosopher
Western ideas (democracy, reason, etc.) stifled people's creativity
Wanted people to return to the ancient heroic values of pride, assertiveness, etc. "Humankind cannot bear very much reality." Surrealism Wanted to depict the inner world of emotion and imagination
Sought to link the world of dreams with real life
"beyond or above reality" Salvador Dali Modern Day Example Igor Stravinsky Russian
Used irregular rhythms and dissonances (or harsh combos of sound)
"The Rite of Spring" Jazz Emerged in New Orleans, Memphis, and Chicago
Loose beat captured the new freedom Women's Roles Change Young people were willing to break with the past and experiment with modern values After WWI, women's suffrage became law in many countries (U.S., Britain, Germany, Sweden, and Austria) Abondoned restrictive clothing Wore shorter, looser garments and had their hair "bobbed" Birth Control New careers in medicine, education, and journalism Technological Advances Improve Life Automobile Prewar Britain: Autos for only the rich
Postwar Britain: Prices dropped and middle class bought Airplane 1919: Two British pilots made the first successful flight across the Atlantic, from Newfoundland to Ireland
1927: Charles Lindbergh took a 33 hour solo flight from New York to Paris Radio and Movies Marconi: 1st Radio
KDKA in Pittsburgh: 1st commercial radio station
Europe: Movies were art
Hollywood: 90% of all films were made; for entertainment
Charlie Chaplin: king of the silent screen Taboo Review Marconi
Charlie Chaplin
Charles Lindbergh
Changing Role of Women
Jazz Stravinsky
T.S. Elliot
William Butler Yeats
James Joyce
Einstein human suffering + economic terms = bankruptcy and political decline Unstable New Democracies Russia Provisional Government fell to Communist Dictatorship Germany For generations, kings and emperors rulled the area Other Issues Political parties created divisions
coalition government: temporary alliance of several parties
Poor leadership and lack of long-term goals Weimar Republic 1919
Named after city where the national assembly met
Weak: Germany lacked strong democratice tradition, had several major and minor political parties, people blamed for WWI and the Treaty of Versailles Inflation Causes Crisis Unlike Great Britain and France, Germany didn't increase wartime taxes
Solution was to print money but after war it lost its value
Mark, Germany's currency, fell when reparation payments kicked in
Costs increased: Bread in 1918 was 1 mark while it rose to 160 marks in 1922 and 200 billion marks in 1923 Attempts at Economic Stability 1923: Germany recovered due to international intervention
Charles Dawes, an American banker, provided a $200 million loan (Dawes Plan)
Attracted more loans and investments with time Efforts at a Lasting Peace The foreign ministers of Germany and France tried to improve relations between their countries
Both promised not to make war against each other and to honor borders
Germany was admitted into the League of Nations
Kellogg-Briand Peace Pact: U.S. Secretary of State got all European nations "to renounce war as an instrument of national policy"
Pact had no way to enforce the goal A Flawed U.S. Economy uneven distribution of wealth, overproduction by business and agriculture, and many Americans were buying less Stock Market Crashes New York City's Wall Street was the financial capital of the world
Middle-income people started buying stocks on margin (paid a small percentage and borrowed the rest)
September 1929: investors began to think that stock prices were unnaturally high so they started selling their stocks
Thursday, October 24: stock prices started falling
Tuesday, October 29: stock prices plunged to a new low when 16 million stocks were sold 2 min 4 min American bankers demanded repayment of overseas loans
American market for European goods dropped sharply when the U.S. Congress placed high tariffs on imported goods
Germany and Austria were hit hard Great Britain National Government: multiparty coalition that passed high tariffs, increased taxes, lowered interest rates, and regulated currency France Self-sufficient agricultural economy
Depression created political stability
The Popular Front: coalition of moderates, Socialists, and Communists who passed a series of reforms to help workers U.S. New Deal: large public works projects aimed at providing jobs
Believed government spending would create jobs and start recovery World Confronts the Crisis New Deal
The Popular Front
National Government
Great Depression
Stock Market Crash
Kellog-Briand Peace Pact
Dawes Plan
Weimer Republic
Coalition Government Taboo Review Emphasized loyality to the state and obedience to its leader Preached an extreme form of nationalism One-party Rule Denied individual rights Economy controlled by state corporations or state Supported by middle class, industrialists, and military censorship
secret police Culture Benito Mussolini Treaty of Versailles: disapointment over failure to win large territorial gains
Rising inflation
High Unemployment Italians ? Democracy Newspaper editor and politician
Promised to rebuild economy and armed forces
Founder of the Fascist Party
Black Shirts attacked Communists and Socialists
Played on fear of workers' revolt, middle class support grew October 1922: 30,000 Fascists marched on Rome
Demanded that King Victor Emmanuel III put Mussolini in charge
Nicknamed "Il Duce" (The Leader)
Abolished democracy, outlawed political parties, used secret police, and censored material Adolf Hitler Germany Failed artist
Volunteered for the Germany Army
Awarded the Iron Cross for bravery twice NAZISM National Socialist German Workers' Party
right-wing party
believed Germany had to overturn the Treaty of Versailles and combat communism Swastika, or hooked cross Storm Troopers AKA Brown Shirts Private Militia Success as an organizer and speaker allowed him to become der Fuhrer (leader) of the party
Attempted to seize power of Munich after being inspired by Mussolini
Failed, arrested, tried for treason, and sent to prison Wrote "Mein Kampf" or "My Struggle"
Outlines beliefs and goals for Germany
Aryans were a master race
Germany needed more lebensraum (living space) 1932: Nazis were largest party
Conservatives believed they could control Hitler so they advised President Hidenburg to make him chancellor
Reichstag burns down before elections and Nazis target Communists
SS (Schutztaffel or protection squad) and the Gestapo (secret police) enforced totalitarian policies
Anti-semitism (hatred of Jews) became key component of ideology and led to Kristallnacht (Night of Broken Glass) Kristallnacht
Mein Kampf
Storm Tropers
Iron Cross
Hitler Il Duce
King Victor Emmanuel III
Black Shirts Taboo Review Taboo Reivew Japan Seeks An Empire European Aggressors on the March Democratic Nations Try To Preserve Peace Japan Becomes More Democratic Signed international treaty agreeing to respect China's borders
Signed Kellog-Briand Pact thus renouncing war
Had a parliamentary system but it was weak 1929 Militarists Take Control of Japan Civilians blamed government
Militarists turned the emperor into a symbol of state power
Extreme nationalists who wanted to solve the $ problems
Planned for a Pacific Empire Emperor Hirohito 1931 Japan Invades Manchuria Area rich in iron & coal
Army seized land despite parliament's objections
1st direct challenge to the League of Nations 1937 Japan Invades China Sparked over border issues
Jiang Jieshi's million soldier army lost
Rape of Nanking Mussolini Attacks Ethiopia One of Africa's 3 independent nations
Mussolini ordered to avenge previous loss during the Age of Imperialism
Emperor Haile Selassie asked the League of Nations for help
LON condemned but did nothing in hopes of keeping peace in Europe Hitler Defies Versailles Treaty Germany built up military and the League issued a mild condemnation
Hitler invaded the Rhineland, an industrialized buffer zone between Germany and France that was off-limits under the TOV
The British urged appeasement (giving in to an agressor to keep peace)
Action increased strength of Hitler's power and presitge while pushing the balance of power in favor of Germany
Convinced Mussolini to enter into an alliance with Hitler and Hirohito (Axis Powers) Civil War Erupts In Spain Spain was a monarchy until 1931 when it was declared a republic
Government was run by libeals and Socialists
Fascist army leaders joined General Francisco Franco in a revolt
Hitler and Mussolini supported Franco's Nationalists
Republicans only received help from the Soviet Union Picasso's Guernica German allies bombed
Cubism (geometric forms) A human skull
Bull gores from below Hidden images fromed by the horse Dead soldier with severed arm grasping a shattered sword from which a flower grows Bull's tails forms the image of a flame with smoke rising from it On open palm of dead soldier is a stigma, a symbol of martyrdom derived from Christ Spanish word for lightbulb = "bombilla"=
allusion to bomb = destruction caused by technology Flame lit lamp is a symbol of hope Daggers that suggest screaming replace the tongues of the bull, grieving women, and hores Shape and posture of bodies express protest
Use of black, white, and grewy set somber mood
Flaming buildings and crumbling walls express destruction of war
Newspaper print used reflects how Picasso learned of massacre Kellog-Briand Pact
Emperor Hirohito
Jiang Jieshi
Rape of Nanking
Haile Selassie
Axis Powers
Nationalists U.S. Follows an Isolationist Policy Isolationism Belief that political ties to other countries should be avoided Neutrality Acts 1935
Congress passed
Laws banned loans and the sale of arms to nations at war The German Reich Expands Anschluss union between Austria & Germany Hitler wanted to incorporate into the Third Reich Treaty of Versailles prohibited Czechoslovakia Sudetenland contained 3 million German-speaking people 1937-1938 Munich Conference Meeting of Italy, Germany, France, & Britain
Czechs not invited
Chamberlain was pro-appeasement
Britain and France allowed Hitler to take the Sudetenland in exchange for the promise that he respect Czech's borders Non-Aggression Pact Britain, France, and the Soviet Union joined together to stop Hitler
However, Germany and the Soviet Union agreed to never attack each other Republicans
Francisco Franco
Neutrality Acts
Munich Conference
Non-agression Pact Taboo Review 2 min 2 min
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