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Transcript of Nutrition/Microvilli
muscular movement helps to break down food and move it through the digestive system
cells depend on the circulatory system to get the nutrients needed to function
Nutrients, such as sugars and proteins, are provided through the digestive system
teeth in the skeletal system are responsible for beginning the process of digestion by breaking down the food
How does the digestive system depend on other body systems?
This is the inability to digest lactose, a sugar found in milk products. People with this disease don't have lactase, an enzyme found in the lining of the small intestine. This can cause abdominal pain, bloating, and diharrea. Treatment is to not eat products containing dairy or take lactase enzyme tablets.
Digestive System Disruptions
Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD):
occurs when a valve called the esophageal shpincter does not close correctly and stomach acid comes back up the esophagus. This can cause heartburn and can be treated by dietary changes, over the counter medication, or prescription medication.
Digestive System Disruptions Cont.
- Microvilli have network of blood vessels in them
- Nutrients enter blood stream and go to other cells that need them.
Why do nutrients move into the bloodstream at the microvilli?
Compounds such as aspirin, which are lipid-soluble, are absorbed in the stomach, not the microvilli.
Example of substance absorbed somewhere else
After being put into the body, the nutrients go to the microvilli. There, they enter the bloodstream through the vessels in the microvilli. Then, the nutrients travel through the bloodstream to cells that need these certain nutrients.
How are nutrients transported?
Some organisms do not have the microvilli that humans and other animals have to absorb nutrition. There are many other methods available for these organisms to use instead.
How do Organisms Function Without Microvilli?
These organisms live in bodies of water. They are generally motile and move around to access food.
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"Microvillus." Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 23 Apr. 2014. Web. 26 Apr. 2014.
"Unicellular Organisms." Unicellular Organisms . Rockingstone Heights School, n.d. Web. 26 Apr. 2014.
"Virtual Worm - Digestion." Virtual Worm - Digestion. Nature Watch, n.d. Web. 26 Apr. 2014.
Paramecia, animal-like protists, feed on bacteria and algae using a cilia-filled oral groove. Once this cavity is filled, a vacuole forms, bringing the food inside the cell. Nutrients diffuse through the membrane into the cytoplasm from there. Waste products are secreted. Through an anal pore (!!)
In a similar process, the amoeba, another animal-like cell, uses phagocytosis to ingest nutrients. The membrane extends in a psuedopod, surrounds a food particle, and takes it in. A vacuole forms.
This vacuole will act like both a storage unit and a digestive organelle. If the cell needs nutrients, it releases chemicals into the vacuole which break down the food, allowing the nutrients to diffuse into the cytoplasm.
Waste is released through exocytosis
Plants are autotrophs, so they basically make their own nutrition from natural products. They also absorb vital macro and micro nutrients through their roots.
In everybody's favorite plant process, photosynthesis, plants use the sun's energy, carbon dioxide, and water to create sugars and starches and confusion for bio students everywhere.
Nutrients from the Soil
There are 13 mineral nutrients. They come from the soil and are dissolved in water. Then, roots absorb them. These nutrients are vital, and people use fertilizers to add the nutrients to the soil because sometimes the proper nutrients are available in the soil and plant growth is impacted.
Primary (major, and often lacking due to heavy plant use):
Secondary (generally enough of these in soil)
The common earthworm does not possess microvilli. Instead, the ingested food travels to through the esophagus to the crop, where it is stored until it is needed. Then it moves to the gizzard. The gizzard is a mechanical organ that grinds, rolls, and breaks down the food inside the worm. It is likely that the gizzard has solid particles (such as grains of sand) that aid in this process. The broken down food moves to the intestine, where enzymes further break it down. Finally, the circulatory system then distributes the nutrients.
Chicken & Turkey
In an exceedingly and surprisingly similar process, the chicken and turkey both have a system with a crop and a gizzard that store and break down food just like the worm.
Some animals do not possess microvilli.
Often, these animals possess gizzards that break down food.
Life Process of Nutrition
The process by which living things take in materials from their environment for growth and repair; there are 2 types
Autotrophs self feed through photosynthesis and chemosynthesis
Heterotrophs obtain food from other organisms
Organisms prepare their own food from simple raw materials
Chlorophyll present in the chloroplast are the site of food production in a photosynthetic producing organism.
Example- Green Plants
Some organisms can use energy which they derive from chemical reactions. With this energy they manufacture their food. This process is called chemosynthesis.
Example-Venenivibrio stagnispumantis gains energy by oxidizing hydrogen gas
They depend on other organism for their food.
They consume complex organic food prepared by autotrophs or producers and break it into simple from to derive nourishment.
Heterotrophs may be parasitic, saprophytic and holozoic.
Holozoic nutrition involves ingestion of complex organic substances. In this mode, small or large particles of food are consumed through an opening called mouth (Ingestion). Then these are hydrolyzed into simpler and soluble forms (digestion). Simplified products are absorbed into the body (absorption) and the undigested product is removed from the body (Elimination).
Parasitic organisms are those which live on or inside other living organisms to derive their food
Saprophytic organisms derive their food from decomposing dead organisms. The complex organic compounds become simpler in dead organisms when the decomposition sets in
How do Microvilli Function in the Process
They are microscopic protrusions of the nuclear membrane that increase the cells' surface area.
Aid in absorption, secretion, cellular adhesion, and mechanical transduction
Intestinal microvilli assists the body system in digestion. In the intestines, microvilli increase the surface area of digestive cells to help the intestines absorb the nutrition from ingested food.
What Animals have microvilli to help them accomplish nutrition
Plants do not have microvilli because they have a ridged cell wall that surrounds their membrane.
They also produce their own food so they do not have to absorb it.
-Pancreas helps control pH
-Liver secretes bile
-stomach-beghins digestion (chyme)
How microvuilli depend on other features in the digestive system
Other forms of digestions help break down food so it is easier for the microvilli to absorb the necessary nutrients.
Mechanical digestion- Chewing allows for the breaking down of food into smaller particles
Chemical digestion- Liver secretes bile that is used to break down fats into smaller pieces.
Absorption- Pancreatic fluids help adsorb fats and sugars.